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TitleUnderstanding French
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Table of Contents
                            Understanding French
Grammar I
Introduction to French
Liaison and Elision
Nasal Sounds
Getting Ready for the Basics
Cognates are words that are the same or similar in both Fren
Greetings and Salutations
Cardinal numbers
Nouns of number
Ordinal numbers
Days and Dates
Days and months
False Friends
Understanding Articles
Four French definite articles express the English word “the;
Definite Articles
Indefinite Articles
Partitive Articles
Definite versus Partitive
Demonstrative Adjectives
The Gender of Nouns
Obvious masculine and feminine nouns
Nouns that give you a hint
Nouns that change gender
Nouns with gender that must be memorized
The Plural of Nouns
Regular Verbs
- er verbs
- ir verbs
- re verbs
- er verbs with spelling changes and - cer verbs
- ger verbs
- yer verbs
- e + consonant + - er verbs
- er verbs with double consonants
- é + consonant + - er verbs
Irregular Verbs
Questions, Asking Yes or No
N'est-ce pas
Est-ce que
Asking for Information
Interrogative adjectives
Interrogative adverbs
Invariable interrogative pronouns
Variable interrogative pronouns
Il y a
French Possession
Using de
Using être à
Possessive Adjectives
Subject Pronouns
Il and elle
Ils and elles
Using Object Pronouns
Direct object pronouns
Indirect object pronouns
The adverbial pronoun (y)
The adverbial pronoun (en)
The position of object pronouns
Double object pronouns
Independent (Stress) Pronouns
Relative Pronouns
Qui (subject) and que (direct object)
Qui and lequel (objects of a preposition)
Ce qui and ce que
The Infinitive Form
Regular Verbs
Regular Verbs with Spelling Changes
Irregular Verbs
Idiomatic Expressions
Common Negative Words and Phrases
Forming the Negative
Changing Masculine to Singular Feminine
Masculine adjectives that end in a silent e
Masculine adjectives that end in é
Masculine adjectives that end in eux
Masculine adjectives that end in f
Masculine adjectives that end in er
Masculine adjectives that end in consonants
Masculine irregular adjectives
Forming Plural from Singular Adjectives
Masculine singular adjectives that end in s or x
Masculine singular adjectives that end in al
Masculine irregular singular adjectives
Adjective Placement within Sentences
Forming Adverbs
Adverbial Expressions
Placing Adverbs within Sentences
Expressing Comparisons of Inequality
Using adjectives
Using adverbs
Using nouns
Comparisons of Equality
Comparative and Superlative Expressions
Using Prepositions
Expressing “In”
Contractions of Two Prepositions
Prepositions with Geographical Locations
Prepositional Modifiers
Verbs Requiring Indirect Objects
Prepositions Before Infinitives
Verbs requiring à
Verbs requiring de
Verbs requiring other prepositions
Verbs requiring à quelqu'un de
Nouns and adjectives followed by de before an infinitive
Verbs requiring no preposition
The Passé Composé
Introduction to the Passé Composé
The Passé Composé with Avoir
Forming the negative in the passé composé with avoir
Questions in the passé composé with avoir
Past Participles of Regular Verbs
Past Participles of Irregular Verbs
The Passé Composé with Être
Forming the negative in the passé composé with être
Questions in the passé composé with être
Special Verbs that Use Être and Avoir
Introduction to the Imperfect
Imperfect Tense and Regular Verbs
Imperfect Verbs with Spelling Changes
Imperfect Tense and Irregular Verbs
Future Tense
Future tense of regular verbs
Future tense and verbs with spelling changes
Future tense of irregular verbs
Negating in the future tense
Questions in the future tense
The Conditional
Negating in the conditional
Questions in the conditional
Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive or Non‐Reflexive?
Idiomatic Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive Verbs and Commands
Reflexive Verbs and Compound Tenses
Uses of the Subjunctive
Forms of the Subjunctive
After impersonal expressions
After verbs and expressions of doubt, denial, and disbelief
After a wish or a command
After verbs and expressions of emotion and feeling
After certain conjunctions
Subjunctive versus Infinitive

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