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TitleTurkey (Eyewitness Travel Guides)
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size46.5 MB
Total Pages434
Table of Contents
                            Contents
HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
INTRODUCING TURKEY
	DISCOVERING TURKEY
	PUTTING TURKEY ON THE MAP
	A PORTRAIT OF TURKEY
	TURKEY THROUGH THE YEAR
	THE HISTORY OF TURKEY
INTRODUCING ISTANBUL
	ISTANBUL AT A GLANCE
	SERAGLIO POINT
	SULTANAHMET
	THE BAZAAR QUARTER
	BEYOGLU
	FURTHER AFIELD
	ISTANBUL STREET FINDER
TURKEY REGION BY REGION
	TURKEY AT A GLANCE
	THRACE AND THE SEA OF MARMARA
	THE AEGEAN
	MEDITERRANEAN TURKEY
	ANKARA AND WESTERN ANATOLIA
	THE BLACK SEA
	CAPPADOCIA AND CENTRAL ANATOLIA
	EASTERN ANATOLIA
TRAVELLERS’ NEEDS
	WHERE TO STAY
	WHERE TO EAT
	SHOPPING IN TURKEY
	ENTERTAINMENT IN TURKEY
	OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES
SURVIVAL GUIDE
	PRACTICAL INFORMATION
	TRAVEL INFORMATION
	GENERAL INDEX
	PHRASE BOOK
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

TURKEY

THE GUIDES THAT SHOW YOU WHAT
OTHERS ONLY TELL YOU

EYEWITNESS TRAVEL

BAZAARS • RESTAURANTS
BEACHES • MOSQUES
HISTORY • CARPETS

HOTELS • NATIONAL PARKS
SHOPS • MUSEUMS • RUINS

Page 217

M E D I T E R R A N E A N T U R K E Y 2 1 5

Ancient Lycia, a federation of
19 independent cities, lay in the
mountainous area between
modern Fethiye and Antalya.
Burials must have had an
important role in the beliefs of
the Lycians, for they cut hun-
dreds of tombs into cliff faces
and crags that can be seen
throughout the area. They were
probably copies of domestic archi-
tecture, intended as houses for the

dead. Most have carved doors,
beam ends, pitched roofs and
prominent lintels – typical of
construction in wood.
During the 4th century BC,
the rulers of Xanthos (modern
Kınık) produced some of the
most remarkable tombs, com-
bining Greek and Persian styles.
One of the most famous of

these, the Nereid Monument, is now
in the British Museum in London.

Lycian Tombs

Pillar tombs (on a stepped base or
built directly on rock) are the
oldest Lycian tombs. These are
found only at Xanthos, the chief
city of Lycia, and Apollonia. This
example is from Xanthos.

Partly hollow base
topped by a stepped lid

Sarcophagus placed
atop the pillar base

The doorway of a house
tomb often featured a
sliding slab.

Rock cut away
to make a roof
space

House tombs at Myra, near Demre, feature richly carved
façades. The elaborate reliefs on some of the tombs still bear
traces of paint applied by the original builders.

The freestanding temple tomb
had a temple façade and a portico,

from which a door led to a grave
chamber with benches for the dead.

Sarcophagus tombs had a
stepped base, a lower grave

chamber (called a hyposorion),
a flat plate for the coffin and a

lid. The pitched, rounded lid
symbolized a house roof, and
had a prominent ridge. From
500 BC to AD 300, elaborate
“saddlebacked” sarcophagus

tombs were produced.

The house tomb of one to three
storeys, shown here at Tlos, was
carved into solid rock. A sliding
slab door opened into an inner
chamber. Some tombs had
exterior porticoes with carvings.

“Beam ends”
used to open
the lid of the
sarcophagus

Prominent
lid ridge

Stepped
base

Tomb relief

Page 218

T U R K E Y R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 1 6

For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp335–338 and pp362–365

on coastal trade, supplying
incense (derived from the
liquidamber orientalis tree)
to Egypt and Constantinople.
The modern town of Demre,
which is also known as Kale,
is 3 km (2 miles) from the
ruins of Myra.
The most popular parts of
Myra are the theatre and two
cliffs carved with spectacular
house tombs. When Charles
Fellows visited the site in 1840,
the paint on the tombs was
still visible and letters of the
inscriptions were picked out
in red and blue. The oldest
part of Myra was on the
acropolis hill, with a 5th-
century BC defensive wall.
Myra’s water supply ran in
channels cut into the wall of
the Demre gorge and the frigid
sulphur springs at Andriake
provided therapeutic baths
and healing drinking waters.
St Nicholas legends origin-
ated in Mediterranean Patara
(his birthplace) but the Church
of St Nicholas is the most
charming reason to linger in
Demre. This petite Byzantine
church is spiritually and archi-
tecturally heavenly and some
long-concealed frescoes are
being brushed back into life.

Üçağız, Simena and
Kekova Island w
38 km (24 miles) E of Kaş.
* 2,800. 4 from Demre or Kaş.

The picturesque waterfront
village of Üçağız (“Three
Mouths”) is a 19 km (12 mile)
drive south of the D400, just
east of Kaş. Dolmuşes will
drop you at the main road,
but no scheduled transport
leads directly to the village.
Built on the site of (and
using stones from) the Lycian
town of Teimiussa, houses,
restaurants and pensions front
a sheltered bay with three
openings to the sea. There
are some signs of subsidence,
probably as a result of an
earthquake that took place in
about AD 530. Submerged
saddleback tombs (see p215)

can be seen at the Lycian site
of Aperlae and the village of
Kale (ancient Simena) nearby,
where a castle built in around
1440 surrounds a tiny theatre
cut into the rock. A pleasant
stroll along the coast via the
marked Lycian Way leads to
its rarely visited twin.
Above Demre, an asphalt
road provides a shortcut to
Üçağız. Daily boat tours call in
to the pretty bay enclosed by
Kekova Island (Kekova Adası).

Varnished charter vessels and quaint fishing boats share the little harbour at Üçağız

Demre (Myra) e
* 19,200. @ 100 m (100 yards)
from main square. R

The ancient city of Myra and
the port of Andriake, 3 km
(2 miles) southwest of Demre,
date from around the 5th
century BC, and grew rich

THE REAL SANTA CLAUS

Nicholas, the 4th-century Bishop of Myra, was
famed for his unfailing generosity and piety.
He was beatified, and legend established him
as the patron of fishermen and children, and
the town as a place of pilgrimage. (He is also
the patron saint of bakers, brewers and
brides.) There are two statues of St Nicholas
(Noel Baba in Turkish) in Demre: one is a

gift from the Russian Orthodox Church,
and is mounted on a revolving pedestal.

The saint’s myrrh-impregnated bones
were buried on his church’s premises.
Although this church was destroyed by
the Arabs in 809, the bones survived and
were moved to Bari, Italy, in 1087. The

church at Demre was rebuilt by a
Russian prince in the 19th century.

Demre is also the headquarters of
the St Nicholas Foundation.

Statue of St Nicholas
in Demre Carved mask relief from the

theatre at Myra

Page 433

P H R A S E B O O K 4 3 1

Phrase Book
Pronunciation
Turkish uses a Roman alphabet. It has 29 letters: 8 vowels and
21 consonants. Letters that differ from the English alphabet are:
c, pronounced “j” as in “jolly; ç, pronounced “ch” as in “church”;
ğ, which lengthens the preceding vowel and is not pronounced;
ı, pronounced “uh”; ö, pronounced “ur” (like the sound in
“further”); ş, pronounced “sh” as in “ship”; ü, pronounced “ew”
as in “few”.

In an Emergency
Help! İmdat! eem-dat
Stop! Dur! door
Call a doctor! Bir doktor beer dok-tor chah-
çağrın! ruhn
Call an Bir ambulans beer am-boo-lans
ambulance! çağrın! chah-ruhn
Call the police! Polis çağrın! po-lees chah-ruhn
Fire! Yangın! yan-guhn
Where is the En yakın telefon en ya-kuhn
nearest nerede? teh-leh-fon
telephone? neh-reh-deh
Where is the En yakın hastane en ya-kuhn
nearest nerede? has-ta-neh
hospital? neh-reh-deh

Communication Essentials
Yes Evet eh-vet
No Hayır h-‘eye’-uhr
Thank you Teşekkür ederim teh-shek-kewr
eh-deh-reem
Please Lütfen lewt-fen
Excuse me Affedersiniz af-feh-der-see-neez
Hello Merhaba mer-ha-ba
Goodbye Hoşça kalın hosh-cha ka-luhn
Good morning Günaydın gewn-‘eye’-duhn
Good evening İyi akşamlar ee-yee ak-sham-lar
Morning Sabah sa-bah
Afternoon Öğleden sonra ur-leh-den son-ra
Evening Akşam ak-sham
Yesterday Dün dewn
Today Bugün boo-gewn
Tomorrow Yarın ya-ruhn
Here Burada boo-ra-da
There Śurada shoo-ra-da
Over there Orada o-ra-da
What? Ne? neh
When? Ne zaman? neh za-man
Why? Neden neh-den
Where? Nerede neh-reh-deh

Useful Phrases
How are you? Nasılsınız? na-suhl-suh-nuhz
I’m fine İyiyim ee-yee-yeem
Pleased to Memnun oldum mem-noon ol-doom
meet you
See you soon Görüşmek üzere gur-rewsh-mek
ew-zeh-reh
That’s fine Tamam ta-mam
Where is/are …? … nerede? …neh-reh-deh
How far is it to …? … ne kadar uzakta? …ney ka-dar
oo-zak-ta
I want to go to … … a/e gitmek … a/eh geet-mek
istiyorum ees-tee-yo-room
Do you speak İngilizce biliyor een-gee-leez-jeh
English? musunuz? bee-lee-yor moo-
soo-nooz?
I don’t Anlamıyorum an-la-muh-yo-room
understand
Can you help me? Bana yardım ba-na yar-duhm
edebilir misiniz? eh-deh-bee-leer mee
-see-neez?

Useful Words
big büyük bew-yewk
small küçük kew-chewk
hot sıcak suh-jak
cold soğuk soh-ook
good/well iyi ee-yee
bad kötü kur-tew
enough yeter yeh-ter
open açık a-chuhk
closed kapalı ka-pa-luh
left sol sol
right sağ saa
straight on doğru doh-roo

near yakın ya-kuhn
far uzak oo-zak
up yukarı yoo-ka-ruh
down aşağı a-shah-uh
early erken er-ken
late geç gech
entrance giriş gee-reesh
exit çıkış chuh-kuhsh
toilets tuvaletler too-va-let-ler
push itiniz ee-tee-neez
pull çekiniz cheh-kee-neez
more daha fazla da-ha faz-la
less daha az da-ha az
very çok chok

Shopping
How much is this? Ne kadar? ney ka-dar
I would like … … istiyorum … ees-tee-yo-room
Do you have …? … var mı? …var muh?
Do you take Kredi kartı kreh-dee kar-tuh
credit cards? kabul ediyor ka-bool eh-dee-yor
musunuz? moo-soo-nooz?
What time do Saat kaçta Sa-at kach-ta
you open/ açılıyor/ a-chuh-luh-yor/
close? kapanıyor? ka-pa-nuh-yor
this one bunu boo-noo
that one şunu shoo-noo
expensive pahalı pa-ha-luh
cheap ucuz oo-jooz
size (clothes) beden beh-den
size (shoes) numara noo-ma-ra
white beyaz bay-yaz
black siyah see-yah
red kırmızı kuhr-muh-zuh
yellow sarı sa-ruh
green yeşil yeh-sheel
blue mavi ma-vee
brown kahverengi kah-veh-ren-gee
shop dükkan dewk-kan
till kasa ka-sa
bargaining pazarlık pa-zar-luhk
That’s my last Daha fazla da-ha faz-la
offer veremem veh-reh-mem

Types of Shop
antiques shop antikacı an-tee-ka-juh
bakery fırın fuh-ruhn
bank banka ban-ka
book shop kitapçı kee-tap-chuh
butcher’s kasap ka-sap
cake shop pastane pas-ta-neh
chemist’s/ eczane ej-za-neh
pharmacy
fishmonger’s balıkçı ba-luhk-chuh
greengrocer’s manav ma-nav
grocery bakkal bak-kal
hairdresser’s
(ladies) kuaför kwaf-fur
(mens) berber ber-ber
leather shop derici deh-ree-jee
market/bazaar çarşı/pazar char-shuh/pa-zar
newsstand gazeteci ga-zeh-teh-jee
post office postane pos-ta-neh
shoe shop ayakkabıcı ‘eye’-yak-ka-buh-juh
stationer’s kırtasiyeci kuhr-ta-see-yeh-jee
supermarket süpermarket sew-per-mar-ket
tailor terzi ter-zee
travel agency seyahat acentesi say-ya-hat
a-jen-teh-see

Sightseeing
castle hisar hee-sar
church kilise kee-lee-seh
island ada a-da
mosque cami ja-mee
museum müze mew-zeh
palace saray sar-‘eye’
park park park
square meydan may-dan
theological medrese med-reh-seh
college
tomb türbe tewr-beh
tourist turizm too-reezm
information danışma da-nuhsh-mah
office bürosu bew-ro-soo
tower kule koo-leh
town hall belediye sarayı beh-leh-dee-yeh
sar-‘eye’-uh
Turkish bath hamam ha-mam

Page 434

P H R A S E B O O K4 3 2

Transport
airport havalimanı ha-va-lee-ma-nuh
bus/coach otobüs o-to-bewss
bus stop otobüs durağı o-to-bewss
doo-ra-uh
coach station otogar o-to-gar
minibus dolmuş dol-moosh
fare ücret ewj-ret
ferry vapur va-poor
sea bus deniz otobüsü deh-neez
o-to-bew-sew
station istasyon ees-tas-yon
taxi taksi tak-see
ticket bilet bee-let
ticket office bilet gişesi bee-let gee-sheh-see
timetable tarife ta-ree-feh

Staying in a Hotel
Do you have a Boş odanız bosh o-da-nuhz
vacant room? var mı? var muh?
double room iki kişilik bir oda ee-kee kee-shee-leek
beer o-da
room with a çift kişilik yataklı cheeft kee-shee-leek
double bed bir oda ya-tak-luh beer o-da
twin room çift yataklı bir cheeft ya-tak-luh
oda beer o-da
for one person tek kişilik tek kee-shee-leek
room with a bath banyolu bir oda ban-yo-loo beer o-da
shower duş doosh
porter komi ko-mee
key anahtar a-nah-tar
room service oda servisi o-da ser-vee-see
I have a Rezervasyonum reh-zer-vas-yo-noom
reservation var var
Does the price Fiyata kahvaltı fee-ya-ta kah-val-
include breakfast? dahil mi? tuh da-heel mee?

Eating Out
A table for … kişilik bir masa … kee-shee-leek
… please lütfen beer ma-sa lewt-fen
I want to reserve Bir masa ayırtmak beer ma-sa
a table istiyorum ‘eye’-uhrt-mak
ees-tee-yo-room
The bill please Hesap lütfen heh-sap lewt-fen
I am a vegetarian Et yemiyorum et yeh-mee-yo-room
restaurant lokanta lo-kan-ta
waiter garson gar-son
menu yemek listesi ye-meklees-teh-see
fixed-price menu fiks menü feeks meh-new
wine list şarap listesi sha-raplees-teh-see
breakfast kahvaltı kah-val-tuh
lunch öğle yemeği ur-leh yeh-meh-ee
dinner akşam yemeği ak-sham yeh-meh-ee
starter meze meh-zeh
main course ana yemek a-na yeh-mek
dish of the day günün yemeği gewn-ewn
yeh-meh-ee
dessert tatlı tat-luh
rare az pişmiş az peesh-meesh
well done iyi pişmiş ee-yee peesh-meesh
glass bardak bar-dak
bottle şişe shee-sheh
knife bıçak buh-chak
fork çatal cha-tal
spoon kaşık ka-shuhk

Menu Decoder
badem ba-dem almond
bal bal honey
balık ba-luhk fish
bira bee-ra beer
bonfile bon-fee-leh fillet steak
buz booz ice
çay ch-‘eye’ tea
çilek chee-lek strawberry
çorba chor-ba soup
dana eti da-na eh-tee veal
dondurma don-door-ma ice cream
ekmek ek-mek bread
elma el-ma apple
et et meat
fasulye fa-sool-yeh beans
fırında fuh-ruhn-da roast
fıstık fuhs-tuhk pistachio nuts
gazoz ga-zoz fizzy drink
hurma hoor-ma dates
içki eech-kee alcohol
incir een-jeer figs
ızgara uhz-ga-ra charcoal grilled

kahve kah-veh coffee
kara biber ka-ra bee-ber black pepper
karışık ka-ruh-shuhk mixed
karpuz kar-pooz water melon
kavun ka-voon melon
kayısı k-‘eye’-uh-suh apricots
kaymak k-‘eye’-mak cream
kıyma kuhy-ma minced meat
kızartma kuh-zart-ma fried
köfte kurf-teh meatballs
kuru koo-roo dried
kuzu eti koo-zoo eh-tee lamb
lokum lo-koom Turkish delight
maden suyu ma-den soo-yoo mineral water (fizzy)
meyve suyu may-veh soo-yoo fruit juice
midye meed-yeh mussels
muz mooz banana
patlıcan pat-luh-jan aubergine
peynir pay-neer cheese
pilav pee-lav rice
piliç pee-leech roast chicken
şarap sha-rap wine
sebze seb-zeh vegetables
şeftali shef-ta-lee peach
şeker sheh-ker sugar
su soo water
süt sewt milk
sütlü sewt-lew with milk
tavuk ta-vook chicken
tereyağı teh-reh-yah-uh butter
tuz tooz salt
üzüm ew-zewm grapes
vişne veesh-neh sour cherry
yoğurt yoh-urt yoghurt
yumurta yoo-moor-ta egg
zeytin zay-teen olives
zeytinyağı zay-teen-yah-uh olive oil

Numbers
0 sıfır suh-fuhr
1 bir beer
2 iki ee-kee
3 üç ewch
4 dört durt
5 beş besh
6 altı al-tuh
7 yedi yeh-dee
8 sekiz seh-keez
9 dokuz doh-kooz
10 on on
11 on bir on beer
12 on iki on ee-kee
13 on üç on ewch
14 on dört on durt
15 on beş on besh
16 on altı on al-tuh
17 on yedi on yeh-dee
18 on sekiz on seh-keez
19 on dokuz on doh-kooz
20 yirmi yeer-mee
21 yirmi bir yeer-mee beer
30 otuz o-tooz
40 kırk kuhrk
50 elli eh-lee
60 altmış alt-muhsh
70 yetmiş yet-meesh
80 seksen sek-sen
90 doksan dok-san
100 yüz yewz
110 yüz on yewz on
200 iki yüz ee-kee yewz
1,000 bin been
100,000 yüz bin yewz been
1,000,000 bir milyon beer meel-yon

Time
one minute bir dakika beer da-kee-ka
one hour bir saat beer sa-at
half an hour yarım saat ya-ruhm sa-at
day gün gewn
week hafta haf-ta
month ay ‘eye’
year yıl yuhl
Sunday pazar pa-zar
Monday pazartesi pa-zar-teh-see
Tuesday salı sa-luh
Wednesday çarşamba char-sham-ba
Thursday perşembe per-shem-beh
Friday cuma joo-ma
Saturday cumartesi joo-mar-teh-see

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