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TitleThe heritage of world civilizations
TagsReligion And Belief Epic Of Gilgamesh
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Total Pages214
Table of Contents
                            Title Page Volume 1
Table of Contents
	CH 01 Birth of Civilization
		1-1 Hittite Laws
		1-2 Hymn to the Nile and Hymn to the Sun
		1-3 The Epic of Gilgamesh
		1-4 An alumnus reminisces about scribal school
		1-5 The Books of Shang
		1-6 The Book of Songs
	CH 02 The Four Great Revolutions in Thought and Religion
		2-1 Confucius, Analects
		2-2 "Upanishads": A mirror into the underpinnings....
		2-3 The Path of Mindfulness
		2-4 Isaiah: from The Book of Isaiah
		2-5 The Apology from Plato
		2-6 Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics
	CH 03 Greek and Hellenistic Civilization
		3-1 Pericles' Funeral Oration by Thucydides
		3-2 Antigone by Sophocles
		3-3 Homer: from The Iliad
		3-4 Tyrtaeus, The Sparan Creed
		3-5 Thucydides from Histor of the Peloponnesian War
	CH 04 Iran, India, and Inner Asia to 200 C.E.
		4-1 The Laws of Manu
		4-2 Bhagavad-Gita
		4-3 Cyrus of Persia: A study in Imperial Success
		4-4 Kuan-yin [Guanyin]: Compassion of Bodhisattva
	CH 05 Republican and Imperial Rome
		5-1 The Speech of Cammillus: "All Things Went Well...
		5-2 Polybius: "Why Romans an Not Greks Govern the World"
		5-3 Marcus Tullius Ciero: The Laws
		5-4 Overture: The Gospel of Jesus
		5-5 The Gospel According to John
		5-6 The Letter of Paul to the Romans
	CH 06 Africa: Early History to 1000 C.E.
		6-1 Bumba Vomits the World, Bushonga (Gantu), Zaire
		6-2 Cagn Orders the World, Bushman, Southern Africa
		6-3 The Sparation of God from Man (Krachi), Togo
		6-4 Traditional Songs of Africa
	CH 07 China's First Empire (221 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.)
		7-1 The Yellow Emperor, Nei-ching [Neijing] (Canon of Medicine)
		7-2 Song Yu, On the Wind
		7-3 Anonymous Folk Songs from the Music Bureau (120 B.C.)
		7-4 Sima Qian: The historian's historian writes about the builder of the Great Wall
		7-5 Cai Yan, from I8 Verses Sun to a Tatar Reed Whistle
		7-6 Zhang Heng (78–139 CE), The Bones of Chuang Tzu
	CH 08 Imperial China (589 – 1368)
		8-1 Emperor T'ai-tsung [Taizong]: "on the Art of Government"
		8-2 Poems by Wang Wei
		8-3 Du Fu: Ballad of the War Wagons
		8-4 Li Qingzhoa (Li Ch'ing-chao) (1084–c. 1151): Poems
		8-5 The Zen Teaching of Huang Po
		8-6 Ssu-Ma Kwang
	CH 09 Japan: Early Hisory to 1467
		9-1 Futon No Yasumaro: The Kojiki or Records of Ancient Matters
		9-2 Prince Shotoku's Seventeen Article Constitution
		9-3 "Kagero Nikki": A noblewoman's lot in ancient Japan
		9-4 Taleof the Heike (Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries)
		9-5 Kamo no Chomei (c 1155–1216) (memoir)
		9-6 Japanese Zen Poetry
	CH 10 Iran and India Before Islam
		10-1 Gnostic Texts
		10-2 Duties of a King, Artha Shastra
		10-3 Kalidsa: from The Seasons
		10-4 Hsuan-tsang [Xuanzang], The Land and People of India
	CH 11 The Formation of Islamic Civilization
		11-1 Al-Tabari: An early biography of Islam's Prophet
		11-2 Islam in the Prophet's absence: Continuation uner the Caliphate
		11-3 The Caliphate in decline: Al-Matawakil's murder
		11-4 Al Farabi: The Perfect State
		11-5 Shiism and Caliph Ali: Controversy over the Prophet's succession
	CH 12 The Early Middle Ages in the West to 1000: The Birth of Europe
		12-1 The institutes of Justinin from the Courpus Iuris Civilis
		12-2 The Book of Emperors and Kings,
Charlemagne and Pope Leo III
Benedict of Nursia:
The Rule of St. Benedict
		12-4  Leo I: The man who laid the foundations for the medieval Papacy
		12-5  Law Code of the Visigoths
	CH 13 The High Middle Ages (1000 – 1300)
		13-1 Gregory VII’s Letter to the Bishop of Metz, 1081
		13-2 Duke William of Aquitane: Foundation Charter for the Abbey of Cluny, 909
		13-3  St. Thomas Aquinas: The Summa against the Gentiles (Summa Contra Gentiles), 1259–1264
		13-4  St. Thomas Aquinas: On Kingship or The Governance of Rulers (De Regimine Principum), 1265–1267
		13-5  The Magna Carta
		13-6  Robert of Clari, The Conquest of Constantinople
	CH 14 The Islamic Heartlands and India (ca. 1000 – 1500)
		14-1 William of Rubruck: Impressions of the medieval Mongols
		14-2 Farid al-Din Attari: The Conference of Birds
		14-3 The Thousand and One Nights
		14-4 Two Bhakti Poets: Ravidas and Mirabai
	CH 15 
Ancient Civilizations of the Americas
		15-1 The Myth of the Incas: A case of double creation?
		15-2 The Mesoamerican Mind: Tezcatlipoca, Quetzatcoatl, and music
		15-3 The Mesoamerican Mind: The Aztecs and holy warfare
Twenty Sacred Hymns (1554),
Florentine Codex (1579),
	CH 16
The Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance
in the West
		16-1 The Chronicle of Jean de Venette
		16-2 The Bull Unam Sanctam of Boniface VIII
		16-3 Propositions of Wycliffe condemned at London, 1382, and at the Council of Constance, 1415
		16-4 Dante: The Divine Comedy— Inferno, Canto I
		16-5 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince and The Discourses on Titus Livy
		16-6 Francis Petrarch, Rime
	CH 17
The Age of Reformation
and Religious Wars
		17-1 Christopher Columbus: The Letters of Columbus to Ferdinand and Isabel
		17-2 Erasmus, Julius II Excluded
		17-3 Martin Luther: Ninety-Five Theses or Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences
		17-4 Luther vs. Erasmus: A reformer’s attack on free will
		17-5 John Calvin and the Elect: The cool logic of salvation
	CH 18
		18-1 Ibn Battuta in Mali
		18-2 Martín Fernández de Figueroa, Confronting the Moors in Somalia
		18-3 Kilwa, Mombasa, and the Portuguese: Realities of empire
		18-4 Sundiata
	CH 19
Conquest and Exploitation: The Development
of the Transatlantic Economy
		19-1 Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of Mexico
		19-2 Bartholomew de Las Casas: Amerindians and the “Garden of Eden”
		19-3 Christopher Columbus, Journal of First Voyage to America
		19-4 Bartolomé de Las Casas, Destruction of the Indies and The Only Method of Converting the Indians
		19-5 Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African
		19-6 Commerce, Slavery and Religion in North Africa
Document Text Contents
Page 1


Document Set
Stuart Twite




Albert M. Craig
Harvard University

William A. Graham
Harvard University

Donald Kagan
Yale University

Steven Ozment
Harvard University

Frank M. Turner
Yale University

PRENTICE HALL, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

Page 2




l. Hittite Laws 1
2. Hymn to the Nile and Hymn to the Sun 3
3. The Epic of Gilgamesh 5
4. An alumnus reminisces about scribal school in ancient Sumeria 8
5. The Books of Shang 9
6. The Book of Songs 11


1. Confucius, Analects 13
2. “Upanishads”: A mirror into the underpinnings of the ancient Hindu faith 13
3. The Path of Mindfulness 16
4. Isaiah: from The Book of Isaiah 17
5. The Apology from Plato 18
6. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics 18


1. Pericles’ Funeral Oration by Thucydides 22
2. Antigone by Sochocles 25
3. Homer: from The Iliad 28
4. Tyrtaeus, The Spartan Creed 29
5. Thucydides from History of the Peloponnesian War 30


1. The Laws of Manu 34
2. Bhagavad-Gita 39
3. Cyrus of Persia: A Study in Imperial Success 41
4. Kuan-yin: Compassion of the Bodhisattva 42

Page 107

Chapter 10

persons who cannot endure such a horrible ordeal, they
take a flower-bud and cast it toward the fire; it if opens, he
is innocent; if the flower is burned, he is guilty.

Ordeal by weight is this: A man and a stone are placed
in a balance evenly, then they judge according to lightness
or weight. If the accused is innocent, then the man weighs
down the stone, which rises in the balance; if he is guilty,
the man rises and the stone falls.

Ordeal by poison is this: They take a ram, cut off its
right hind leg, and put poison upon the portion of flesh that
is assigned to the accused to eat; if the man is guilty, the
poison takes effect and he dies; if the man is innocent, the
poison has no effect and he survives.

Every one who falls sick fasts for seven days. During
this interval many recover, but if the sickness lasts they
take medicine. The character of these medicines is differ-
ent, and their names also vary. The doctors differ in their
modes of examination and treatment. If a person dies, those
who attend the funeral raise lamentable cries and weep
together. They rend their garments and tear their hair; they
strike their heads, and beat their breasts. There are no regu-
lations as to dress for mourning, nor any fixed period for
observing it. There are three methods of paying the last
tribute to the dead: first, by cremation—wood being made
into a pyre, the body is burnt; second, by water—the body
is thrown into a stream to float and fall into dissolution;
third, by desertion, in which case the body is cast into some
forest-wild to be devoured by beasts.

When the king dies, his successor is first appointed, that
he may preside at the funeral rites and fix the different


points of precedence. Whilst living they give their rulers
titles of merit according to their character; when dead there
are no posthumous titles.

In a house where there has been a death there is no
eating allowed; but after the funeral they resume their usual
habits. There are no anniversaries (of the death) observed.
Those who have attended a funeral are regarded as unclean;
they all bathe outside the town and then enter their houses.

The old and infirm who are approaching death, or those
who are suffering from some incurable disease, who fear
to linger to the end of their days, and through disgust at life
wish to escape from its troubles, or those who, condemn-
ing mortal existence, desire release from the affairs of the
world and its concerns—these persons after receiving a
farewell meal at the hands of their relatives and friends,
they place, amid the sounds of music, on a boat which they
propel into the midst of the Ganges, and there these
persons drown themselves. They think in this way to secure
a birth in Heaven. Hardly one out of ten will not carry out
his foolish idea.

The Buddhist brethren are not allowed to lament or
weep for the dead; when the father or mother of a monk
dies, they recite prayers, recounting their obligations to
them and recalling the past, and they carefully attend to
them being now dead. They expect by this to increase the
happiness of the departed.

How does Xuanzang react to Hindu (as opposed to
Buddhist) practices?


Page 108

Chapter 11

The Formation of Islamic Civilization


Al-Tabari: An early biography
of Islam’s Prophet

Source: Arthur Jeffrey, trans., Islam, Muhammad and His Reli-
gion (N.Y.: Liberal Arts Press, 1958), pp. 15–17. Quoted in
Mircea Eliade, From Medicine Men to Muhammad (N.Y.: Harper
& Row, 1974), pp. 63–64.

Ahmad b. ‘Uthman, who is known as Abu’l-jawza’, has
related to me on the authority of Wahb b. Jarir, who heard
his father say that he had heard from an-Nu’man b. Rashid,
on the authority of az-Zuhri from ‘Urwa, from ‘A‘isha,
who said: The way revelation (wahy) first began to come
to the Apostle of Allah—on whom be Allah’s blessing and
peace—was by means of true dreams which would come
like the morning dawn. Then he came to love solitude, so
he used to go off to a cave in Hira where he would prac-
tise tahannuth certain nights before returning to his family.
Then he would come back to his family and take provi-
sions for the like number [of nights] until unexpectedly the
truth came to him.

He (i.e., Gabriel) came to him saying: ‘O Muhammad,
thou art Allah’s Apostle (rasūl).’ Said the Apostle of
Allah—upon whom be Allah’s blessing and peace:
‘Thereat I fell to my knees where I had been standing, and
then with trembling limbs dragged myself along till I came
in to Khadija, saying: “Wrap ye me up! Wrap ye me up!”


till the terror passed from me. Then [on another occasion]
he came to me again and said: “O Muhammad, thou art
Allah’s Apostle,” [which so disturbed me] that I was about
to cast myself down from some high mountain cliff. But he
appeared before me as I was about to do this, and said: “O
Muhammad, I am Gabriel, and thou art Allah’s Apostle.”
Then he said to me: “Recite!”; but I answered: “What
should I recite?”; whereat he seized me and grievously
treated me three times, till he wore me out. Then he said:
“Recite, in the name of thy Lord who has created” (Sūra
XCVI, 1). So I recited it and then went to Khadija, to
whom I said: “I am worried about myself.” Then I told her
the whole story. She said: “Rejoice, for by Allah, Allah
will never put thee to shame. By Allah, thou art mindful of
thy kinsfolk, speakest truthfully, renderest what is given
thee in trust, bearest burdens, art ever hospitable to the
guest, and dost always uphold the right against any wrong.”
Then she took me to Waraqua b. Naufal b. Asad [to whom]
she said: “Give ear to what the son of thy brother [has to
report].” So he questioned me, and I told him [the whole]
story. Said he: “This is the nāmūs which was sent down
upon Moses the son of Amram. Would that I might be a
stalwart youth [again to take part] in it. Would that I might
still be alive when your people turn you out.” “And will
they turn me out?” I asked. “Yes,” said he, “never yet has
a man come with that with which you come but has been
turned away. Should I be there when your day comes I will
end you mighty assistance.”’

How did Muhammad react to the first visitations from


Page 214

Conquest and Exploitation: The Development of the Transatlantic Economy

distancing Him from His worshippers, brings Him closer
to His creatures. He is All-Seeing, All-Knowing, He is
Omnipresent. He is Holy and no place can encompass Him.
Only the saints can look upon Him in the places where His
dwelling is sempiternal, as has been established by the
verses of the Qur’ān and the accounts of the ancients. He
is Living, He is Powerful, He is Almighty, He is Superb, He
is Severe; idleness and weakness are remote from Him.”

“He forgets not, He sleeps not. His is the command and
to Him belongs the vastness of the universe. To Him belong
honor and omnipotence. He created creatures and their
acts. When He wishes a thing, it is. When He does not wish
it, it is not. He is the Beginning and the End, the Doer of
His will. Everything that is in the world—movement, rest,
good, evil, profit, loss, faith, infidelity, obedience and
disobedience—all come from God. There is no bird that
flies with its wings, no beast that walks on its feet, no
serpent that glides on its stomach, no leaf that grows or
falls and no light or darkness without the almighty will of
God. Everything that exists is created; God exists from
eternity and all that has been created demonstrates His
unity. Man’s petition to God is prayer and prayer itself only
exists by the will of God. If you put your confidence in
God, He will care for you as He cares for the birds of the
heavens who set out hungry and return full. He does not
bring food to their nests, but he puts in them the instinct
to search for it.”

I would not dare to say that this speech made a lively
impression on the Negroes, but the solemnity of the new
spectacle for them, the receptivity with which we, their
masters and the holy marabout, listened certainly made


them ready for the carrying out of the religious act that
would make them Muslims. When time for the operation
came, though all or almost all showed themselves surprised,
not one refused to undergo it, for they take pride in having
no fear of pain. As soon as they had been marked with the
symbol of the Muslims, they had their wounds staunched by
us with an astringent powder made of dried ground leaves
of arrar [juniper] and el-aazir, blended with butter.8

The marabouts then prayed over them in gnāwiyya,
saying: “O you Negroes, give thanks to God! Yesterday
you were idolators and today you are Muslims. Depart with
your masters who will clothe you, feed you and love you
like their brothers and children. Serve them well and they
will give you your liberty in a while. If you are comfort-
able with them you shall stay there. If not you shall return
to your land.”

That day and the next we took particular care of our
slaves. We fed them good meat and let them sleep in tents
to keep them from the cold and dew of the nights. Thanks
to such attentions our caravan did not lose a single one. In
the other caravans, however, some of the older ones died.

How important was the European influence in
determining the character of the North African slave


8El-Aazir has not been identified. The “butter” referred to was no doubt
samm— “clarified butter” or “ghee,” not the type one is accustomed to
spread on bread.

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