Download Sugar Boiling and Sugar Cristalization PDF

TitleSugar Boiling and Sugar Cristalization
TagsCandy Boiling Nutrition Caramel
File Size142.4 KB
Total Pages11
Document Text Contents
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Sugar boiling and sugar crystallization
B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

[05th Dec. 2009]


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Sugar boiling and sugar crystallization

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Sugar confectionery refers to a large range of food items, commonly known as sweets. Boiled
sweets, toffees, marshmallows, and fondant are all examples.

Sweets are a non-essential commodity, but are consumed by people from most income groups.
The variety of products is enormous, ranging from cheap, individually-wrapped sweets, to those
presented in boxes with sophisticated packaging. In manufacturing candies and sweets sugar
plays a major role. For this the behavior of sugars when heating and cooling is an important
factor. Sugar crystallization depends on the degree of super saturation of sugar and formation of
sugar crystal lattice.

When sugar containing mixtures are heated, it undergoes physical change due to evaporation of
water phase. Boiled sweet types are produced by boiling sucrose; water flavoring etc. boiling is
done at about 150c in an open pan and concentrated to 97-98% soluble solids. The boiling is
done to remove most of the water from the syrup.

Pulling of candy gives a gloss and a white appearance to the confection. This is due to repeated
drawing and folding of the plastic candy to incorporate air bubbles.

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Mouldability -possible

Thread formation -can be seen

Brittleness -slightly

Taste -sweet

Color -golden color

At 145 ºC

Consistency -crystallization could be seen

Mouldability -possible

Thread formation -possible

Brittleness -slightly brittle

Taste - slightly bitter with sweet taste

Color - light brown

At 170 ºC

Consistency -very hard

Mouldability -possible

Thread formation -not possible

Brittleness -brittle

Taste - bitter taste

Color -brown color

2.1.4. Discussion

According to the above results, it shows that hardness of the sugar sample increases with the
temperature. Consistency is also improved with the increase of temperature. But when increasing
the temperature beyond 145 ºC taste was bitter.

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Mouldability increases gradually from 113 ºC but further heating leads to cracking of the
structure. Thread forming ability increases with the temperature rise up to 145 ºC due to
inversion (fructose). Beyond 145 ºC thread forming ability decrease due to decomposition of
fructose. Color was changed from golden color to black color due to caramalization of sugar.

The temperature of boiling is very important, as it directly affects the final sugar concentration
and moisture content of the sweet. For a fixed concentration of sugar, a mixture will boil at the
same temperature at the same altitude above sea-level, and therefore each type of sweet has a
different heating temperature. Variations in boiling temperature can make a difference between a
sticky, cloudy sweet or a dry, clear sweet. An accurate way of measuring the temperature is to
use a sugar thermometer. Other tests can be used to assess the temperature (for example, toffee
temperatures can be estimated by removing a sample, cooling it in water, and examining it when
cold). The temperatures are known by distinctive names such as 'soft ball', 'hard ball' etc., all of
which refer to the consistency of the cold toffee.

Type of sweet Temperature range for boiling (0C)

Fondants 116-121

Fudge 116

Caramels and regular toffee 118-132

Hard toffee 146-154

Hard boiled sweets 149-166

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Prepared were allowed to cool and observed under the microscope.

2.3.3. Results

mixture consistency Mouldability Thread




100 g sugar +
60 mL water at
120 0C

Thick liquid turn
off white color
when pulled


Less thread

soft Sweet

100 g sugar +
60 mL water at
128 0C

Yellow color thick
solid turn to pale
color when pulled

possible Good thread

Less hard Caramel

100 g sugar +
60 mL water +
2.5 g tarterate

Pale in color with
good spreadablilty

Possible semi

Good thread

Less hard Caramel

100 g sugar +
60 mL water +
glucose syrup
70 g at 120 0C

Pale in color Possible Good Gummy
less hard


100 g sugar +
60 mL water +
glucose syrup
80 g at 1200C

Brown in color,
thick liquid

possible good Gummy
less hard


2.3.4. Discussion

Definition for Pulled candy is a general term referring to candies that are formed by boiling a
sugar syrup and then manipulating the resulting candy by hand. The "pulling" process consists of

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stretching the still-hot mixture between two hands, bringing the ends together and twisting them
around each other, then repeating the process until the candy becomes too stiff to pull. In
general, pulling takes 5-15 minutes and the resulting candy should become pearlescent and more
opaque. Commonly pulled candies include taffy and ribbon candy.

When tarterate is added to the confections the texture becomes soft. According to the above
results 4 and 5 mixtures are suitable for confection due to good appearance, pale color, good
mauldabilty, thread forming ability and sweet taste. When glucose syrup is added, mauldability
and thread forming ability increases and the firmness also increase due to the increase of glucose
and fructose concentration. When drawn, white glossy appearance could be observed due to
incorporation of air

2.4. Reference:

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