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TitleSound Person's Guide to Video
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Total Pages299
Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
A Sound Person’s Guide to Video
Copyright Page
Chapter 1. The origins of television and video
	In the beginning
	The coming of colour
	A new standard
Chapter 2. The magic of television
	Colour television
Chapter 3. Video recording – the impossible dream
	Early developments
	Helical scan
	Domestic video formats
Chapter 4. The electronic eye
	Part 1 Camera basics
		Tube cameras
		Charge-coupled devices
		The colour camera
	Part 2 The modern camera
		Hyper HAD
		Into digits
		Master Set-up Unit
Chapter 5. ENG and Betacam SP
	Compressed time division multiplexed system
	Audio in Betacam
	The future
Chapter 6. Digital video
	D1 error protection
	D3 and D5
	Why so many formats?
	Small is beautiful
	Nuts and bolts
	Digital cinematography
	Step up from SP
	Yet another format?
	The kit
	The accessories
Chapter 7. Standards conversion
	Three problems
	Composite video
	Motion compensation
	Comparing standards converters
Chapter 8. The video monitor
	Sync and scan
	Antenna to CRT
	Display technology
	The shadow mask
	Progressive scan
	Flat panel displays
	Plasma displays
	Future technologies
Chapter 9. Home cinema
	The vision
	Virtual Surround
Chapter 10. Nonlinear editing
Chapter 11. JPEG and MPEG2 image compression
	Discrete cosine function
	Entropy coding
	JPEG for moving pictures
	Syntax and semantics
	Spatial and temporal compression
	Motion estimation prediction
	Profiles and levels
Chapter 12. Digital television
	Digital television in the UK
	Digital video
	On demand
	The consumer angle
	Digital television in the USA
	Technical issues
Chapter 13. Film
	A brief history of film
	Meanwhile in France …
	The coming of sound
	Sideways look
	Why film will prosper
Chapter 14. Film stock, film laboratories
	Intermediate and print film
	Editing and regrading
	Release print
Chapter 15. Cinema technology
	Reels and platters
	Sound head
	Cinema systems
Chapter 16. IMAX
	The camera
	The IMAX cinema
Chapter 17. Telecine
	Film feats
	Cathode ray tube
	Digital processing
	High resolution
Chapter 18. Pulldown
	PAL pulldown
	So what should you do?
	A new frame rate?
Chapter 19. Lighting technology
	Film and video lighting
	Lamps glow, bulbs grow
	Broads, Blondes and Redheads
	Moving light, changing colour – performance lighting
	To boldly gobo
Chapter 20. The art of bluescreen
	Motion control
Appendix 1. The science of colour
	The eye
	Subtractive colour mixing
	Additive colour mixing
	Colour triangle
	Colour temperature
Appendix 2. Timecode: the link between sight and sound
	The nature of timecode
	Types of timecode
	Timecode generation
	Sound and picture,working together:
	Finger sync
	Code-only master
	‘Real’ instruments
	CTL and direction
	Synchronizer systems
	System extras
	Jam on it
	Synchronization terminology
Appendix 3. Audio in video editing
	The editing process
	The end of offline?
Document Text Contents
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A Sound Person’s Guide to Video

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138A Sound Person’s Guide to Video
Quite apart from the potential multiplicity of set-top boxes, there is also
a question of what the box should supply to existing receivers. Obviously,

the introduction of a completely new system of broadcasting is a golden

opportunity for widescreen television finally to gain mass acceptance.

Digital television provides an opportunity for broadcasters to offer

widescreen as an option in all of their programming, and it is the viewer

who chooses the aspect ratio of the picture, regardless of the type of set

they have. How this will be implemented is still open to debate. In an
ideal world, additional coding would be transmitted so that if a viewer
chooses to watch a widescreen movie in the old 4:3 aspect ratio, then the

set-top box will pan to the most important part of the action, as is done
now in telecine when preparing a film for 4:3 transmission.
ConclusionDigital television is going to play a major part in our lives as producers

and consumers of programming. There is every likelihood that we could
have hundreds of channels of quality television and radio, widescreen,
HDTV, video on demand and interactivity via cable or the Internet-

bonanza for broadcasters, producers, facilities providers, advertisers, and

couch potatoes everywhere!
Digital television in the USAJust as digital television has taken its first stumbling steps towards flight

in the UK, the USA has also started to move its television services over to
digital delivery. And just as the government here promise that the

analogue transmitters will be switched off sometime early in the next

millennium, with safeguards for pensioners of course, the US govern-

ment has a plan to do the same for terrestrial broadcasts on a roughly

comparable timescale. We may take it as given then that we will all be

watching digital television and good old analogue PAL and NTSC will be

nothing but memories and material for those nostalgia programmes the

BBC has always been so good at. In the USA, the progress of digital

television (DTV) has been very closely linked to that of high definition
television, or HDTV, under the general banner of advanced television

(ATV) systems. Please excuse the acronyms but it is an acronym-strewn
industry. HDTV has been around as an idea for many years. It is pretty
obvious that current analogue television standards are not ideal

(although many viewers seem perfectly happy) and there has long been

a desire to move up to resolutions of around a thousand lines or more.

Engineers naturally aspire towards higher technical standards, producers

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Digital television139would probably prefer to see their creations in a more sparkling and
crystal clear television medium, but the real impetus towards HDTV in

the Western world has been political. Broadcasting is and always will be

of prime interest to politicians since it is the most powerful medium of

communication available. If anyone of a cynical disposition thought that
the secret desire of politicians was to control our thoughts, then the

politicians had better take control over broadcasting, which is historically

what they have done in all the countries of the world. Once Japan had
started, through the politically inspired doctrine of technical excellence,

to take the lead in HDTV development in the 1980s, it was obvious in the
United States that the spin-offs from all the research and development

that would be necessary would place the Japanese ahead of the United
States in all manner of communications technologies.Also during the 1980s the US Federal Communications Commission(FCC) started to look at alternative uses for portions of the radio
spectrum that had previously been unassigned. Their first thoughts were

to allocate these frequencies to a category of use known as Land Mobile,

which includes emergency services, delivery companies and others. This

prompted broadcasters in the desire to stake a rival claim, not because

they had any compelling reason to at that time, but simply because if a
natural resource that is in limited supply is up for grabs, and bandwidth
in the radio spectrum is the broadcaster’s equivalent of a farmer’s field,

you might as well grab what you can. To justify their case, the

broadcasters declared that they needed the bandwidth to develop HDTV

services. The FCC listened and in 1987 appointed an advisory panel, the
Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service (ACATS), which

was given the responsibility of examining the relevant technical issues

and making a recommendation to the FCC on which system of ATV

should be adopted. ACATS announced an open competition to develop

an ATV standard, and among the twenty or so competitors was the

Japanese analogue MUSE (Multiple Sub-Nyquist Sampling Encoding)
standard which was already well developed. General Instrument,

however, were able to demonstrate a DTV system, or at least the

feasibility of such a system. It was evident to the FCC that DTV held great

promise, although it was unlikely that that promise would be fulfilled in

the short term. The FCC therefore delayed its decision until digital

technology could be progressed towards a viable system.
In 1990, the FCC made some important decisions, firstly that whateverATV standard achieved acceptance, it must be something significantly

better than a mere enhancement of existing technology, and must be able

to provide a genuinely high definition picture. Secondly, viewers should
not, in the short term, be compelled to buy a new receiver and that
conventional analogue broadcasts should continue alongside ATV trans-

missions. ACATS started a collaboration with a grouping of industry

representatives, the Advanced Television Standards Committee (ATSC),

and by 1993 had achieved a short list of four digital systems and one

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Index287sampling:pulldown, 212–13
rates, 36standards conversion, 74–5, 76–7
Sarnoff, David, 4, 18
satellite digital television, 134saturation, 226, 248scanning, 2–4
cameras, 10, 28DTV, 142
HDTV, 142
helical, 8–9, 21–4, 60
interlaced, 12, 142monitors, 83progressive, 11, 87, 92, 142
telecine, 205–6
television, 11–13
transverse, 7, 20video, 7, 8–9, 20, 21–4
SECAM (Sequential Colour withMemory) system, 6, 73, 74segmentation, 56separation positive prints, 176
Sequential Colour with Memory seeSECAMset-top boxes, 137shading, CCD cameras, 39shadow mask, 85–6, 87, 94
shuttle mode, 55, 56, 62silver enhancement, 176Skin Tone Detail, 69
skin tone detail enhancement, 37, 38sloping verticals, 77SMPE, 149
SMPTE timecode, 75, 251, 253, 260–2,
264Society of Motion Picture and
Television Engineers (SMPTE), 8,
251colorimetry, 38
timecode, 251, 253, 260–2, 264
video formats, 22Sony:Betacam, 45, 48, 49cameras, 40–1
cathode ray tube, 88D1, 51–2, 54
Digital Betacam, 68digital video recording, 51–2, 54,
56, 59helical scan video recording, 22
Hyper HAD, 34–5
video, 8–9
sound:see alsoaudiofilm, 45, 150–3, 258–60
film projection, 189–90
IMAX, 199synchronization, 258–72
sound advance, 152–3, 190
spatial compression, 123–4
spatial frequencies, 114, 115, 123–4
standard illuminants, 47, 249
standards conversion, 73–80, 209, 215,
216Steadicam, 195stepped diagonals, 37stereoscopic images, 158
Strand Lighting, 222subtractive colour mixing, 246Super 16, 161, 162, 163–4
Super 35, 156surround sound, 96, 97, 98, 99
synchronization, 82–3, 144, 258–72
Technicolor, 157–8
telecine, 138, 201–8
film stock, 166motion problems, 77
pulldown, 209–17
television, 10–17
see alsoNTSC: SECAM; PAL
ATV, 138–40
cameras, 4, 27–43
colour, 4–6, 14–17
digital, 122–3, 130, 132–45
frame rate, 11–12, 209, 211–13,
HDTV, 74, 93, 130, 134, 138–9,
141–2, 164
history, 1–6
projection, 18, 84, 97
receivers, 28, 81–2
safe areas, 162, 163
standards, 209
telecine, 77, 138, 166, 201–8, 209–17
temporal compression, 124–6
terrestrial digital television, 133–4,

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288IndexTHX Home Cinema, 99–101
timebase circuit, 83
timebase correction, 23–4, 47, 51, 55
timecode, 212–13, 216, 251–72
timeline, 108–10
timing stability, 18–19
Todd, Mike, 156–7
Todd-AO, 156–7
transverse scanning, 7, 20Trellis encoder, 143–4
Trinitron cathode ray tube, 88
triode vacuum tube, 1
tube cameras, 28–31, 33–4, 77, 79
U-Matic, 24, 45, 46, 107, 274Ultimatte, 239–40
Ultra Panavision, 157United Kingdom:digital television, 132–8
television, 3–4
United States of America:
digital television, 138–45

pulldown, 209television, 4, 209timecode, 254–6
Vari-Lite, 225–31
VARI*LITEs, 225–31
versioning, 111–12
vertical hold, 82vertical interval timecode (VITC),264–5, 272
vertical smear, 32, 35
vestigial sideband transmission, 144–5
VHS recorders, 26, 97–8
video:see alsodigital videoanalogue-to-digital conversion,35–9
audio, 260–2, 273–80
contrast range, 201–2
editing, 105–6, 107, 112, 251–72
history, 7–9
lighting, 218–21
monitors, 81–95
recording, 18–26
standards conversion, 209

synchronization, 260–2
timecode, 251–72, 264–5
video cameras, sampling, 74–5
video compression, 67
Video on Demand (VOD), 131, 136
video mapping, 53video tape, 177–82
Video-8, 26
vidicon tube, 4VistaVision, 156
Vitaphone system, 150–2
VITCseevertical interval timecodeVODseeVideo on Demand
‘wagon wheel’ effect, 74–5
Waller, Fred, 154
white, 247white balance, 35–6
film, 153, 154–6
television, 138Zworykin, Vladimir, 4, 29, 202

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