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Decision to Return HomeDecision to Return Home. After the publication of the noli me tangere and the
uproar it caused among the anti Filipino elements, Rizal was warned by Paciano
(his brother), Silvestre Ubaldo (his brother-in-law), Chenggoy (Jose M. Cecilio),
and other friends not to return home. But he did not heed their warning. He was

determined to return to the Philippines for the following reasons: (1) to operate on
ople who had long been oppressed by Spanish

Tyrants; (3) to find out for himself how the Noli and his other writings were
affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines: and (4) to find out why Leonor
Rivera had remained silent.

In a letter to Blumentritt, written in Geneva on June 19, 1887, Rizal said:

benevolent, but I cannot accept it. I cannot endure the life in Madrid where
arents want to see me, and I want to

see them also. All my life I desire to live in my country by the side of my family.

Until now I am not Europanized like the Filipinos of Madrid; I always like to

In Rome, on June 29, 1887, Rizal wrote to his father, announcing his

country, so that from the 15

to the 30

Delightful Trip to Manila.Delightful Trip to Manila. Rizal left Rome by train for Marseilles, a French port,
which he reached without mishap. On July 3, 1887, he boarded the steamer
Djemnah, the same steamer which brought him to Europe five years ago. There
were about fifty passengers, including 4 English, 2 Germans, 3 Chinese, 2

Japanese, and many Frenchmen.s

Arrival in Manila.Arrival in Manila.

August 3

the moon was full, and he slept soundly the whole night. The calm sea
illumined by the silvery moonlight was a magnificent sight to him.

On August 6

he arrived in Manila. He disembarked shortly after nine

found Manila the same as when he left it five years ago. There were the same old
churches and buildings, the same holes in the roads, the same boats on the Pasig
River, and the same hoary walls surrounding the city.

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Happy Homecoming.Happy Homecoming. On August 8

, the two days after his arrival in Manila, he
reached Calamba. His family welcomed him affectionately, with plentiful tears of

Paciano did not leave him during the first days after arrival to protect him

from enemy assault. His own father would not let him go out alone, lest something
might happen to him.

In Calamba, Rizal established a medical clinic. His first exploit as a
physician was the successful operation on his mother sightless eyes.
News of the successful operation spread far and wide. Patients from Manila and
the provinces flocked to calamba. Rizal, who came to be called “Doctor Uliman”

because he came from Germany. His professional fees were reasonable, even
gratis to the poor. Within a few months, he was able to earn $900 as a physician.
Rizal opened a gymnasium for young folks, he introduced European sports. He
tried to interest his townmates in gymnastics, fencing and shooting so as to
discourage the cockfights and gambling.

Storm over the “Noli.”Storm over the “Noli.” A few weeks after his arrival, a storm broke over his
novel. One day Rizal received a letter from Governor General Emilio Terero to
come to Malacañang. Somebody had whispered to the governor’s ear that the

novel contained subversive ideas. He denied it, explaining that he merely exposed
the truth, but he did not advocate subversive ideas. Governor-general asked the
author for a copy of Noli so that he could read it. Rizal had no copy because the
only copy he brought home was given to a friend.

Rizal visited Fr. Francisco Sanchez, Fr. Jose Bech, and Fr. Federico Faura.
He had a spirited discussion with them about the Noli, and Father Faura ventured
an opinion that “everything in it was the truth,” but added: “You may lose your
head for it.”

Rizal’s life is was in jeopardy because the friars were powerful. For security, he assigned a young Spanish lieutenant, Don Jose Taviel de Andrade, as
bodyguard of Rizal belonged to a noble family. He was cultured and knew
painting, and he could speak English, French, and Spanish.

Governor-general Terrero read the Noli and found nothing wrong in it. The
Archbishop of Manila, Msgr. Pedro Payo (a Dominican), sent a copy of the Noli to
Father Rector Gregorio Echavarria of the University of Santo Tomas for
examination by a committee of the faculty. This report of the faculty members of
the University of Santo Tomas stated that the Noli was “heretical, impious, and
scandalous in the religious order, and anti-patriotic, subversive of public order,
injurious to the government of Spain and its function in the Philippine Islands in
the political order.”

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CHAPTER 12: Romantic Interlude in Japan (1888)CHAPTER 12: Romantic Interlude in Japan (1888)

One of the happiest interlude in the life of Rizal was his sojourn in the Land of the

Cherry Blossoms for 45 days (Feb. 28 – Apr. 13, 1888).

Fate, however, cut short his happy days in Japan. He had to sacrifice his own happiness

to carry on his work for the redemption of his oppressed people.

Rizal Arrives in Rizal Arrives in YokohamaYokohama

Early in the morning of Tuesday, February 28, 1888, Rizal arrived in Yokohama. He

registered at the Grand Hotel.

The next day, how proceeded to Tokyo and took a room at Tokyo hotel, where he

stayed from March 2 to March 7.

Rizal in TokyoRizal in Tokyo

Shortly after Rizal’s arrival in Tokyo, he was visited in his hotel by Juan Perez CaballeroJuan Perez Caballero,
secretary of the Spanish Legation. The latter invited him to live at the Spanish Legation.

Rizal realized that the Spanish diplomatic authorities were instructed from Manila to

monitor his movements in Japan.

He accepted the invitation for two reasons:

1. He could economize his living expenses by staying at the legation.

2. He had nothing to hide from the prying eyes of the Spanish authorities.

Rizal was favorably impressed by Japan. He was a keen observer, taking copious notes

on the life, customs, and culture of the people. The things which favorably impressed
Rizal were:

1. The beauty of the country – its flowers, mountains, streams, and scenic panoramas.

2. The cleanliness, politeness, and industry of the Japanese people.

3. The picturesque dresses and simple charm of the Japanese women.

4. There were very few thieves in Japan so that the houses remained open day and

night, and in the hotel room, one could safely leave money on the table.

5. Beggars were rarely seen in the city streets, unlike in Manila and other cities.

However, there is one thing which he did not like in Japan, and that was the popular

mode of transportation by means of rickshaws drawn by men.

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Romance with O-Sei-SanRomance with O-Sei-San

One spring afternoon, a few days after he had moved to the Spanish Legation, Rizal saw

a pretty Japanese girl walking past the legation gate. Being a man with an eye for

feminine beauty, he was attracted by her regal loveliness and charm.

Rizal made inquiries among the legation employees and learned from one of them that

she was Seiko Usui. The following afternoon, Rizal waited at the legation gate and
watched for the girl.

As the girl slowly approached, he took of his hat and politely introduced himself. Seiko-

san was mildly amused at the gallant gentleman. Since that first meeting, Rizal and O-

Sei-San met al

O-Sei-San beauty and affection almost tempted Rizal to settle down in Japan. At the

same time, he was offered a good job at the Spanish Legation.

-Sei-San is attested by th

entry in his own diary, Rizal bode farewell to lovely O-Sei-San.

Sayonara, JapanSayonara, Japan

On April 13, 1888, Rizal boarded the Belgic, an English steamer, at Yokohama, bound for

the United States. He left Japan with a heavy heart.

Rizal befriended a passenger on board the BelgicBelgic. The passenger was Tetcho SuehiroTetcho Suehiro, a

fighting Japanese journalist, novelist, and champion of human rights, who was forced by

the Japanese government to leave the country, just as Rizal was compelled to leave the

Philippines by the Spanish authorities.

Fransisco, across the U.S. to London, where they parted ways.

During their acquaintanceship of 8 months (Apr. 13 Dec. 1, 1888), Tetcho came to

admire Rizal.

In year 1891, Tetcho published a political novel titled Nankai-no-DaihNankai-no-Daiharan (Storm aran (Storm overover

the South Sea)the South Sea)

published another novel entitled O-unabara (The Big Ocean)entitled O-unabara (The Big Ocean) which was similar to El


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• Letter to Blumentritt – January 14, 1889
• Prospectus: aim of the association – “to study the Philippines from the scientific and

historical point of view”

• Officers:
- President: Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt(Austrian)

- Vice-President: Mr. Edmund Plauchut(French)

- Counsellors:

*Dr. Reinhold Rost(Anglo-German)
*Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor(Filipino-Spanish)

- Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino)

• August 1889 (Paris) – scheduled holding of the inaugural convention
• Renowned scholars in Europe:

- Dr. Reinhold Rost

- Sir Henry Yule

- Dr. Feodor Jagor

- Dr. A.B. Meyer

- Dr. H. Kern

- Dr. Czepelak

• Planned by Rizal while still in Paris
• To establish a modern college in Hong Kong
• Aim: “to train and educate men of good family and financial means in accordance with

the demands of modern times and circumstances”

• Mr. Mariano Cunanan (Mexico, Pampanga)
- 40,000 pesos (initial capital)

• Curriculum (Subjects):
- Ethics

- Religion

- Natural Law
- Civil Law

- Deportment

- Hygiene

- Mathematics

- Physics and Chemistry

- Natural History

- Geography

- Political Economy

- Universal History

- Philippine History

- Logic, Rhetoric, and Poetics

- Spanish

- English

- French
- German

- Chinese

- Tagalog

- Gymnastics

- Equitation

- Fencing

- Swimming

- Music

- Drawing

- Dancing

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“Por Telefono”“Por Telefono”

• La Vision del Fray Rodiguez
- Fray Jose Rodriguez

• Por Telefono (Barcelona, 1889)
- Fr. Salvador Font (banning of Noli)

• Telephone conversation between Fr. Font (Madrid) and the father provincial (San

Agustin Convent-Manila)

Christmas in ParisChristmas in Paris

• Jose Albert
• Capitan Justo Trinidad
• Christmas dinner: fried chicken, rice, and vegetables

• After New Year brief visit to London (unknown purpose)
• Two theoretical reasons:

- opy in the British

Museum; and

- To see Gertrude Beckett for the last time

• Middle of January 1890 back in Paris

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