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Page 1

Notes in Crim5 (Polygraph) PreparedBy: Dr. Jezreel Vicente



Page 1




THE SUBJECT



TYPES OF SUBJECT FOR LIE DETECTION OR INTERROGATION IN
CRIMINAL CASES:


I. SUBJECT WHOSE GUILT IS DEFINITE OR REASONABLE


A. Emotional Offenders


1. Person who commit crimes in the heat of passion, anger or revenge
[homicide injuries, etc.]

2. Persons whose offenses are accidental in nature like hit and run

motorist. Emotional offenders have a feeling of remorse, mental anguish
as a result of his act. HE is bothered by his conscience and has difficulty

of resting or sleeping.


Techniques for this kind of Subject


a. Display an air of confidence on the subjects guilt

b. Pint out the circumstantial evidence indicative of guilt
c. Sympathize with the subject by telling him that anyone else under

similar conditions or circumstances have committed similar offense.

d. Reduce a subject feeling by minimizing the moral seriousness of the
offense.

e. Sympathize with the subject by condemning his victim or his accomplice,

or anyone else whom some degree of responsibility might conceivably be
placed for the commission of the crime in question.

f. Express friendship in arguing with the subject to tell the truth by:


1. Extend external sympathy by such friendly gestures as a pat on

the shoulder or knee, or by a grip of the hand
2. Tell the subject to tell the truth for the sake of his own conscience;

or moral well-being, as well as because it is the only decent and

honorable thing to do.
3. Let the subject talk of his misfortune and troubles in general,

listen and console as a very mush interested and understanding
friend.

h. Indicate to the subject, as a reason for telling the truth the possibility of

exaggeration on the part of his accuser.
I. Seek a general admission of guilt.


B. Non-Emotional Offenders

These are persons who commit crimes for financial gain, theft, robbery,

killing for money, or more, particular persons who are repeaters. These
offenders have no moral guilt not troubled by conscience. They do not wake up
at night. His only concern is that will he be going to be caught.


Techniques for non-emotional offenders:


a. Point out the fertility of resistance
b. Appeal to the subject’s prude by well-selected flattery, or by a challenge

to his honor.
c. When co-offenders are being interrogated and the previously described

techniques have been found to be ineffective “Play one against the other”
[point out that among one of them has already admitted his guilt and
implicit him in the offense]

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Notes in Crim5 (Polygraph) PreparedBy: Dr. Jezreel Vicente



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The (3) General Types of Subjects.


A. Suspect - Offenders of society who are presumed to have committed the
crime.

B. Complainants - Are those persons who are offended by the suspects.
C. Witnesses - A person who knows something about the crime.




NOTE: All Subjects must be in good physical and mental condition

before he/she may be submitted for polygraph Examination. The following may
not be submitted for Polygraph Test:



1. Person who has extreme nervousness.
2. Person who has physiological abnormalities such as high blood

pressure/hypertension, heart disease, respiratory disorder, toothaches,
severe headaches and practically any painful ailments.

3. Person with mental abnormality.

4. Unresponsive persons, such as person who suffer mental fatique or
under the influenced of drugs or alcohol.


KINDS OF SUBJECT IN POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION


B. AS TO AGE


7-12 Years Old: Fantastic Stage of Subject


13-19 Years Old: Fantastic and Reality Stage of Subject

o Association to gang/groups
o Age of imitation and idolatry
o Most juvenile delinquents are at this stage

o Ego is developed


20-25 years old: Ego of the Subject Begins to Lessen

o They realize that they are not that important persons
o They begin to be adults

o They become responsible
o At this stage girls start to marry
o They begin to be sociable


26-60 Years Old: They Can be the Best Witnesses

o He begin to realize his place in the society
o Materialistic
o They are already matured

o Temper begins to lessen


61 Years Old to Death

o Begin to act like children
o Memories are like children

o Senses are already defective
o They are not quite good witnesses
o They need respect from others

o They are irritable and sensitive
o Become more religious

o Preparation to death
o Beginning to tell experiences of the past

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Notes in Crim5 (Polygraph) PreparedBy: Dr. Jezreel Vicente



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THE EXAMINATION ROOM


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXAMINATION ROOM


1. It must be semi-sound proof room.

2. Free from irrelevant noises.
3. No other spectators allowed in the room.

4. No conversation of persons outside the examination room.
5. No ringing of telephones, pagers or cellular phones.
6. The arresting officer should be kept out.

7. It should contain no ornaments, picture or other objects.
8. The subject should not face a glass window or another room during the

test because of the possible destruction, which may affect test responses.

9. The lightning fixture of the room should be arranged in such a way to
provide good but not excessive glaring illumination.

10. Should be adequately ventilated, with an even and comfortable
temperature.

11. There should be an observation room or a one way mirror or the

arrangement should be similar to a psychology laboratory. It should be
concealed with an equipped microphone, camera, video cameras, so that

outside the observation room can hear a well as see what occurs on the
examination room.



TEST PROCEDURE IN POLYGRAPH EXAMINATION

The reliability of polygraph examination depends on the examiner, but the

employment of the polygraph has its limitations to include:


1. It is an invaluable aid but not a substitute for investigation
2. It does not determine facts; it records responses from the subject knows to

be true

3. It is not a lie detector; it is scientific diagnostic instrument
4. It is as accurate as the examiner is competent
5. The test should not be administered until enough facts of the case have

been established to permit an examiner to prepare a complete set of suitable
question.

6. A test should not be administered without the voluntary consent of the
subject.

7. No indication will be given to any person or written in any report that a

person is guilty because he refuses to take the test.
8. The test should not be administered until the accusation has been

explained to the subject.
9. No attempt to use the polygraph for mental or physical evaluation of any

person.

10. Examination should not be conducted to unfit subjects.

LIMITATIONS OF THE SUBJECT TO UNDERGO POLYGRAPH

EXAMINATION


1. The subject must have a good night sleep atleast five (5) hours prior to the
test.

2. The subject must refrain from smoking for atleast two (2) hours prior to the

test.
3. The subject should not undergo prolonged interrogation prior to the test.

4. The subject must not have been subjected to physical abuse or body
contact.

5. The subject must refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages or any drugs 12

hours before the test.

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Notes in Crim5 (Polygraph) PreparedBy: Dr. Jezreel Vicente



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6. The subject must not be suffering from any temporary illnesses like
headache, toothache, menstruation (female), colds, etc.

7. The subject should be physically fed.
8. The subject should not be engaged in sexual activities few hours before the

test.


Undergoing a lie detector test can be an intimidating experience that

can challenge the nerves of even the most enduring person. You are sitting
there with wires and tubes attached to and wrapped aound your body. Even if
you have nothing to hide, you could be afraid that the metal box instrument

sitting next to you will say otherwise. Polygraph examination is long process
that can be divided into several phases.


HOW DOES THE PROCESS WORKS?


1. The examiner receives and reviews the facts of the case.

2. The examiner explains the test process to the subject and reviews the facts
of the case during pre-test interview.

3. The examiner designs the specific questions and read each question to the

subject to make sure each one is easily understood.
4. The polygraph instrument is attached on the subject’s body and he is given

an additional instruction.

5. The questions are read to the subject several times while the polygraph
sensors are attached on the subject’s body.

6. After charts (polygram) have been run, the examiner analyses the charts
and develops a numerical score for the test. This score results in a
conclusion of truthful, deceptive or inconclusive.

7. The examiner will transmit the test result to the client verbally and a written
report maybe requested.


NOTE: Polygraph examination is conducted in a private room with no other
person permitted in the examination room during the test except if an

interpreter is needed.


PHASE I. INITIAL INTERVIEW WITH THE INVESTIGATOR HANDLING THE
CASE


It is essential to the examiner to obtain accurate information

concerning all the available facts and circumstances that form the basis for the
suspicion or accusation directed against the person to be examined in order to
conduct a satisfactory polygraph examination. If the victim or other witnesses

to an occurrence are available, they should be interviewed. Whenever several
investigator have been working on the case, they should be interviewed,

otherwise the examiner may obtain only garbled version of the facts of the case.

For better polygraph examination purposes than more verbal

description or even photographs, a crime scene sketch prepared by the
investigator is preferred. Unless the examiner is fully informed about the case,
he will not be in the position to conduct a sufficient pre-test interview with the

subject. It is during this phase that the relevant, irrelevant, control and
sometimes, guilt complex questions are formulated. It is also helpful to the

examiner to know as much about the subject and his background as is
available. Such information facilitates the pre-test interview as well as post test
interrogation of a lying subject.

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Notes in Crim5 (Polygraph) PreparedBy: Dr. Jezreel Vicente



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THIS PHASE INCLUDES:


1. Acquiring and evaluating the facts.
2. Determining the areas the subject needs to be asked.
3. The investigator must furnish the examiner the following:

a. Sworn statement of the suspect, witness and victim/ complainant.
b. Incident or spot report.

c. Background investigation (BI) of suspects, witnesses, and victims/
complainants.

d. Rough sketch or pictures of the crime scene and other facts such as:

 specific article and exact amount of money stolen

 peculiar aspect of the offense or any strange set.

 The exact time of the commission of the offense

 Known facts about the suspect’s action or movement.

 Facts indicating any connection between the suspects, victims and

witnesses.

 Exact type of weapon, tool or firearm used

 Result of the laboratory test

 Unpublished facts of the offense known only by the victim,

suspects and the investigator of the case.


PHASE II. PRE-TEST INTERVIEW


The examiner pre-test interview with the subject prior to the test is
considered essential both for the purpose of conditioning the subject for the
examination and also to provoke and observe indications of guilt of innocence.

The examiner should not hold back any information from the subject about the
instrument its attachment or recording. This will serve to increase a lying

subject concerned over possible detection.

The examiner should be friendly to the subject but reserve during the

pre-test interview. No accusatory approach is made in this phase. The subject
himself is usually the best source of information about his behavior.


The primary purpose of the pre-test interview is to prepare or condition
the subject for the test. This phase includes:


1. The appraisal of the subject’s constitutional rights
2. Obtain subject’s consent to undergo polygraph test by signing statement

of consent.
3. The taking of personal data of the subject.

4. Determine his suitability as the subject
5. Clinical observation of the subject.
6. Evaluating the psychological evaluation of the subject.

7. Informing the subject of his involvement of the case investigated.

The type of test that the examiner will conduct is based on the pre-test

interview. It also serves to condition the subject physiologically for the test
upon meeting the subject for the first time. The polygraph examiner identifies

himself and shakes hands with the subject. He then guides the subject to sit
on the chair. The examiner will also pulls out a chair and set himself infront of
the subject. The examiner then informs the subject of his constitutional rights

and proceed to secure the subject’s consent to undergo polygraph examination.
Should the subject given his consent, he is told to sign a “statement of consent”

in duplicate, then the examiner will ask the subject whether he was already
examined by other polygraph examiner for the same case or other separate
case.

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