Download Pump Handbook Complete PDF

TitlePump Handbook Complete
TagsPump Machines Gases Applied And Interdisciplinary Physics Gas Technologies
File Size20.1 MB
Total Pages144
Table of Contents
                            Pump Handbook intro
Pump Handbook Index
Pump Handbook 1.1-1.2
Pump Handbook 1.3
Pump Handbook 1.4
Pump Handbook 1.5
Pump Handbook 1.6
Pump Handbook 2
Pump Handbook 3
Pump Handbook 4
Pump Handbook 5
Pump Handbook Appendix loss
Pump Handbook Appendix
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

GRUNDFOS

Page 72

In environments containing chlorides, stainless steel can

be attacked by localised corrosion, e.g. pitting corrosion

and crevice corrosion. The resistance of stainless steel to

these types of corrosion is highly dependent on its

chemical composition. It has become rather common to

use the so-called PRE (Pitting Resistance Equivalent)

values as a measure of pitting resistance for stainless

steel. PRE values are calculated by formulas in which the

relative influence of a few alloying elements (chromium,

Chemical composition of stainless steel [w%]

Microstructure Designation % % % % % PRE 5)
EN/AISI/UNS Carbon max. Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Other

Ferritic 1.4016/430/ S43000 0.08 16-18 17

Martensitic 1.4057/431/ S43100 0.12-0.22 15-17 1.5-2.5 16

Austenitic 1.4305/303/ S30300 0.1 17-19 8-10 S 0.15-0.35 18

Austenitic 1.4301/304/ S30400 0.07 17-19.5 8-10.5 18

Austenitic 1.4306/304L/ S30403 0.03 18-20 10-12 18

Austenitic 1.4401/316/ S31600 0.07 16.5-18.5 10-13 2-2.5 24

Austenitic 1.4404/316L/ S31603 0.03 16.5-18.5 10-13 2-2.5 24

Austenitic 1.4571/316Ti/ 0.08 16.5-18.5 10.5-13.5 2-2.5 Ti > 5 x carbon 24
S31635 Ti < 0.70

Austenitic 1.4539/904L/ N08904 0.02 19-21 24-26 4-5 Cu 1.2-2 34

Austenitic 1.4547/none / 0.02 20 18 6.1 N 0.18-0.22 43
S 31254 3) Cu 0.5-1

Ferritic/ 1.4462/ none/ 0.03 21-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N 0.10-0.22 34
austenitic S32205 2)

Ferritic/ 1.4410/none/ 0.03 25 7 4 N 0.24-0.32 43
austenitic S 32750 4)

Microstructure Designation % % % % % PRE
EN/ASTM/UNS Carbon max. Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Other

Austenitic 1) 1.4308/CF8/ J92600 0.07 18-20 8-11 19

Austenitic 1) 1.4408/CF8M/ J92900 0.07 18-20 9-12 2-2.5 26

Austenitic 1) 1.4409/CF3M/ J92800 0.03 18-20 9-12 2-2.5 N max. 0.2 26

Austenitic 1.4584/none/ none 0.025 19-21 24-26 4-5 N max. 0.2 35
Cu 1-3

Ferritic/
Austenitic 1.4470/CD3MN/ J92205 0.03 21-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N 0.12-0.2 35

Ferritic/ 1.4517/CD4MCuN/ N 0.12-0.22
Austenitic J93372 0.03 24.5-26.5 2.5-3.5 2.5-3.5 Cu 2.75-3.5 38


molybdenum and nitrogen) on the pitting resistance is

taken into consideration. The higher the PRE, the higher

the resistance to localised corrosion. Be aware that the PRE

value is a very rough estimate of the pitting resistance of

a stainless steel and should only be used for comparison/

classification of different types of stainless steel.

In the following, we will present the four major types of

stainless steel: ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex.

1) Contains some ferrite 2) Also known as SAF 2205, 3) Also known as 254 SMO, 4) Also known as SAF 2507
5) Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE): Cr% + 3.3xMo% + 16xN%.

Fig 1.6.17: Chemical composition of stainless steel

67

Page 73

Ferritic (magnetic)
Ferritic stainless steel is characterised by quite good

corrosion properties, very good resistance to stress

corrosion cracking and moderate toughness. Low alloyed

ferritic stainless steel is used in mild environments

(teaspoons, kitchen sinks, washing machine drums,

etc.) where it is a requirement that the component is

maintenance-free and non-rusting.

Martensitic (magnetic)
Martensitic stainless steel is characterised by high strength

and limited corrosion resistance. Martensitic steels are

used for springs, shafts, surgical instruments and for

sharp-edged tools, such as knives and scissors.

Austenitic (non-magnetic)
Austenitic stainless steel is the most common type

of stainless steel and is characterised by a high

corrosion resistance, very good formability, toughness

and weldability. Austenitic stainless steel, especially

the EN 1.4301 and EN 1.4401 are used for almost any

type of pump components in the industry. This kind of

stainless steel can be either wrought or cast.



EN 1.4305 is one of the most popular stainless steel types

of all the free machining stainless steel types. Due to its

high sulphur content (0.15-0.35 w%), the machinability has

improved considerably but unfortunately at the expense

of its corrosion resistance and its weldability. However,

over the years free machining grades with a low sulphur

content and thus a higher corrosion resistance have been

developed.

If stainless steel is heated up to 500°C - 800°C for a

longer period of time during welding, the chromium

might form chromium carbides with the carbon present in

the steel. This reduces chromium’s capability to maintain

the passive film and might lead to intergranular corrosion

also referred to as sensitisation (see section 1.6.2).

If low carbon grades of stainless steel are used the risk of

sensitisation is reduced. Stainless steel with a low content

of carbon is referred to as EN 1.4306 (AISI 304L) or EN

1.4404 (AISI 316L). Both grades contain 0.03% of carbon

compared to 0.07% in the regular type of stainless steel

EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and EN 1.4401 (AISI 316), see

illustration 1.6.17.

The stabilised grades EN 1.4571 (AISI 316Ti) contain a small

amount of titanium. Because titanium has a higher affinity

for carbon than chromium, the formation of chromium

carbides is minimised. The content of carbon is generally

low in modern stainless steel, and with the easy availability

of ‘L’ grades the use of stabilised grades has declined

markedly.

Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic)
Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel is characterised

by high strength, good toughness, high corrosion resistance

and excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking and

corrosion fatigue in particular.

Ferritic-austenitic stainless steel is typically used in

applications that require high strength, high corrosion

resistance and low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

or a combination of these properties. Stainless steel

EN 1.4462 is widely used for making pump shafts and pump

housings.

68

Page 143

Appendix L

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

0 10

5%

10%

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 °C

kg/m3

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%

45%

50%
55%

0

1

10

100

20 25

5%
10%

30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
°C

cSt

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

40%
45%
50%

80

75

60

65

70

40

45

50

55

15

20

25

30

35

0

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55%

5

10

Temperature

Concentration
wt % =

1057

1060

1058

1056

1054

1052

1050

1048

1046

1044

1042

1039

1036

1033

1030

1027

1025

1.3

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

1117

1115

1113

1111

1109

1107

1104

1102

1100

1097

1094

1092

1089

1086

1083

1080

1077

1.7

1.5

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

1174

1172

1170

1167

1164

1162

1159

1157

1154

1151

1148

1145

1143

1140

1137

1134

1131

2.5

2.1

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

1230

1227

1224

1222

1219 3.6

1217 3.1

1214 2.7

1211 2.3

1208 2.0

1205 1.8

1202 1.6

1199 1.5

1196 1.3

1.2

1.1

1193

1190

1186

1183

1285 1334

1283 1332

1280 1330

1277 1326

1274 6.2 1322 10.1

1271 5.1 1319 8.3

1268 4.0 1315 6.5

1265 3.4 1312 5.5

1262 2.8 1309 4.5

1259 2.6 1306 3.9

1256 2.3 1302 3.3

1253 2.0 1299 2.9

1250 1.8 1295 2.4

1246 1.6

1243 1.5

1240

1237

1384 1435

1381 1429

1377 1423

1372 1420

1367 16.8 1416 25.4

1364 13.3 1413 19.9

1360 9.9 1410 14.4

1357 8.2 1407 11.6

1353 6.6 1403 8.9

1347 5.6 1396 7.5

1340 4.6 1389 6.0

1483 1530 1559

1480 1528 1556

1478 1525 1553

1471 1518 1546

1464 38.2 1511 51.8 1540

1461 29.0 1508 39.0

1457 19.9 1504 26.2

1454 15.9 1501 20.5

1450 12.0 1497 14.7

1443 9.9 1490 12.1

1436 7.8 1483 9.4

Sodium hydroxide

148

Page 144

Appendix L

15

20

25

30

-10

-5

0

5

10

-25

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

10% 15% 20% 25%

-20

-15

Temperature

Concentration
wt % =

1138 3.0

1090 2.3 1137 2.6

1088 2.0 1135 2.2

1086 1.7 1134 1.9

1085 1.5 1132 1.7

1083 1.3 1131 1.5

1082 1.1 1129 1.3

1082 1.0 1127 1.2

1081 0.9 1125 1.0

1245 7.7

1244 6.3

1189 4.3 1242 5.2

1188 3.6 1241 4.4

1187 3.1 1239 3.8

1186 2.6 1237 3.3

1184 2.3 1235 2.9

1182 2.0 1233 2.5

1180 1.8 1230 2.2

1178 1.6 1228 2.0

1176 1.4 1226 1.8

1173 1.3 1223 1.6

Calcium chloride

25

30

0

5

10

15

20

-15

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

[kg/m3] [cSt]

ρ ν

5% 10% 15% 20%

-10

-5

Temperature

Concentration
wt % =

1043 1.8

1042 1.5

1041 1.3

1040 1.1

1039 1.0

1037 0.9

1036 0.8

1082 2.2

1080 1.8

1079 1.6

1077 1.4

1075 1.2

1074 1.1

1072 0.9

1070 0.9

1120 2.9

1118 2.4

1116 2.0

1114 1.7

1112 1.5

1110 1.3

1108 1.2

1106 1.0

1103 0.9

1162 4.0

1160 3.2

1158 2.7

1155 2.3

1153 1.9

1151 1.7

1148 1.5

1146 1.3

1144 1.2

1141 1.1

Natrium chloride

149

Similer Documents