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TitlePivoting: A Coach's Guide to Igniting Substantial Change
File Size5.7 MB
Total Pages218
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
1: A Pivotal Journey
	Living from the Inside Out
	Understanding Our Inner States of Mind
	People Are Mysteries to Be Appreciated
	Understanding What Makes Us Mysterious
	How Our Story Unfolded
		Pivotal Moments: Our Interest
		Pivotal Moments: Our Path
	What to Expect from This Book
2: What Is a Pivot?
	Aha Moments: A Common Perspective
		Initial Literature Review: Scientific Paradigm to Holistic Paradigm
			Problem-solving Literature
			Network Model of Cognitive Insight
			Gestalt Concept of Insight
			Insight and Intuition
			Insight and Body–Mind Connection
			Quantum Change, Epiphany and Transformation
			Coaching Studies
	Literature Review Summary
	Aha Moments: An Expanded Perspective
	Coaching Research Project
		Coaching Research Design
		Initial Coaching Research Learnings
	Stepping Forward on the Path Less Travelled
3: Pivoting: The Extraordinary Power of Self-Organization
	A Coach’s Theory for Igniting Substantial Change
		Theoretical Base of Our Model
		Self-organization: Interplay of Beliefs, Inner Knowing and Memory
	Accessing the Authentic Self
		Potency of the Present Moment
		Directing Attention
			Seeing the Star
			Shifts in Perception
		Mindfulness, Attention and the Present Moment
	Expanding Our Awareness
		Emotions as Expressions of Energy and Awareness
		History of Emotions: The Social Dimension
		The Role that Positive Emotions Play in Awareness
		Embodiment: A Coaching Awareness Strategy
	Implications for Coaching
4: Accessing the Inner Self: Beliefs
	Accessing Our Inner Process
	What Are Beliefs?
	Paradigm Shift in Belief
	Socially Wired for Beliefs
	Western Philosophy and Beliefs
	Beliefs from the Constructivist Perspective
	Beliefs and Quantum Theory
		Role of Self-Organization
	Implications for Coaching
5: Accessing the Inner Self: Knowing
	Accessing Our Inner Process
	What Is Knowledge?
		The Impact of Modern Theories of Knowledge on Coaching
		Impact of Postmodern Theories of Knowledge on Coaching
		Somatic Knowledge and Coaching
	What Is Knowing?
		Tacit Knowing
		Phenomenological Knowing
		Enactive Knowing
		Transpersonal Knowing
	The Bandwidth of Knowing
		Inner Knowing as Frequency
	Implications for Coaching
6: Accessing the Inner Self: Memory
	Accessing Our Inner Process
	The Predominant View of Memory
	Memory: Conscious or Unconscious?
	Procedural Memory: The Storehouse Model
	Remembering Our Lives
	Remembering Our Future Positively
	Constructivist View: Memory Reconsolidation
	Memory as a Social Process
	Unconscious Associative Networks
	The Power of Priming
		What Is Priming?
	Implications for Coaching
7: Turn of the Kaleidoscope
	A Kaleidoscope Story
	Wielding the Kaleidoscope
	Coaching Awareness: Tuning into Fundamentals
		Understanding the Role of Priming
		The Appreciative Stance
		Creating Relationship
		Directing Attention
		Present Moment
		Embodiment: Nexus of Mind, Body and Environment
	Coaching Context: The Client Internal Landscape
		Role of Beliefs
			The Genius of Metaphors
		The Associative Networks of Memory
		Modes of Inner Knowing
		Tapping into the Nonconscious
		Nurturing Interiority and Inspiration
		Positive Emotions
		Creating New Habits
	Implications for Coaching
8: Finding Coherence
	Alchemical Moments
	A New Science of Change
		Conditions for Igniting Substantial Change
			Externally Directed vs. Internally Driven
			Scientific Paradigm vs. Social Constructionism
			Consciousness vs. Nonconsciousness
			Linear vs. Expanded Time
			Planned Change vs. Self-organization
			Negative Bias vs. Emotional Equilibrium
	Implications for Coaching
		Social Context and Influence in Coaching
		Embodied Knowing
		Finding Coherence
		The Nature of Insight
	Movement, Problem and Paradox
		Handling Internal Doubt
	Final Thoughts
Document Text Contents
Page 2


Page 109

experience of being human in all its wholeness and he believed that humans
are completely shaped by their culture so that no one is truly autonomous of
culture. While there can be no existing without a world to exist in, he also
believed in being responsible for one’s own authentic existence. � is meant
reaching beyond just thinking, to opening up to all that one can authen-
tically be. For Heidegger, Being was transcendent and beyond the control
of humans. His mature concept of authenticity was compared to the Zen
Buddhist idea of enlightenment. 44

Of interest to coaching in Heidegger’s work is shifting to a deeper knowing
in which we can observe our lived experience (both coach and client) not as
an “object” to be analysed but rather as phenomena that arise from “nowhere”
through thoughts, feelings, perceptions, memories and projections which
continually appear and disappear (e.g., a feeling appears, then disappears;
a thought comes up, then fades away). 45 � us life is a happening in which
a revealing and bringing to light occurs not through rational thinking but
through an appearance from a source beyond the control of conscious human
thought. Heidegger suggests to us a broader perspective of knowing—that it
is an experience or event that comes through us.

Enactive Knowing

Another interesting perspective on knowing comes from learning theory, pri-
marily based on the work of cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner in the
1960s and 1970s. In researching the cognitive development of children, he
proposed three modes of representation or ways in which information or
knowledge are stored and encoded in memory: enactive, 0–1 years (action-
based); iconic, 1–6 years (image-based); and symbolic, 7 years up (language-
based). 46 Enactive information is encoded � rst and stored in the memory, such
as in the form of muscle memory when a baby shakes a rattle. Iconic informa-
tion is stored visually as a mental picture in the mind. Symbolic information
is stored as a code or symbol, like language, and is the most adaptable form.
As adults, humans can perform many types of motor task (typing, sewing,
operating machinery) that they would � nd di� cult to describe in iconic (pic-
ture) or symbolic (word) form. 47 � e purpose of education for Bruner was
to facilitate thinking and problem-solving skills, not to impart knowledge.

44 Zimmerman ( 1981 ).
45 Zimmerman ( 1981 ).
46 Bruner ( 1966 ).
47 McLeod ( 2008 ).

5 Accessing the Inner Self: Knowing 99

Page 110

He believed that students were active learners who constructed their own

Bruner’s model has been developed into an enactive approach to learn-
ing that encompasses the interaction between autonomous agents and their
environments. 48 It is considered more natural than other forms of knowing
because it is experiential (doing) and cultural (occurs in a context), and it is
based on active participation—knowing by doing and by living rather than
by thinking. 49 Th e enactive approach in cognitive psychology was further
legitimized when Varela, Th ompson and Rosch published their book, � e
Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience , in 1992. Th ey
argued that cognitive activity takes place not in a vacuum but in a world
where someone (an autonomous agent) is trying to get something done (go to
work, make a cup of coff ee, write a book). In other words, there is an essential
relationship with the experience of the individual and the meaningfulness of
that experience; it isn’t abstract thinking but really means something and feels
like something. 50

Cognitive psychologist Marek McGann has stated that enactive learning
has implications for some of the studies that cognitive scientists often take for
granted. He has noted that the typical assumption in cognitive psychology
experiments is that subjects are essentially the same and act/react similarly in
all situations. An enactive view, however, “sees the person as a tangle of skills
and motivations which will be in a more or less unique combination in a given
individual,” and these individual diff erences need to be taken into account. 51

In doing our literature review for this book, we read numerous articles on
cognitive problem-solving experiments to induce aha moments of discovery
in laboratory-type settings. From these experiments, researchers were view-
ing the phenomenon ( aha moment) as an object to be studied, reduced and
explained. We were struck by how diff erent this experimental approach was
to the moments of discovery that we experienced with our clients in real time
in real-life contexts. Extensive research on enactive knowing and enactive
interfaces can be found at the Enactive Network of Excellence, a European
Community research project established in 2004 for the purpose of creating a
new generation of human–computer interfaces.

48 McGann (n.d.).
49 Slee, Campbell and Spears ( 2012 ).
50 McGann (n.d.).
51 McGann (n.d.).

100 Pivoting

Page 217

210 Index

Racioppo, Vince, vii
Radvansky, Gabriel, 110, 111
Reeder, Bobette, vii
Riddle, Douglas, 60
robotics, 69, 71, 170
Rock, David, 77n17, 78, 94, 95
Rogers, Carl, 29, 39, 39n73
Rokeach, Milton, 75, 83n39, 155n36
Roper, Lyndal, 63n43, 64
Rosch, Eleanor, 57, 58, 70, 100, 150
Roth, Deborah, vii
Rothermund, Klaus, 130–2
Royce, Josiah, 146, 154n35

Sawyer, Keith, 21n3, 178, 178n25
Saxer, Daniela, 63n43, 64
scaling question (Solution Focused

Brief Therapy), 140
Schacter, Daniel, 111, 118n39
Scharmer, Otto, 12
Schein, Edgar, 87
Schilling, Melissa, 19n1, 22n12, 23–5
science of change

chaos theory, 171
complexity theory, 171
dynamic movement, 171
holistic, 170, 171

scientific materialism, 77, 78, 85, 93
scientific paradigm, 4, 14–16, 20–36,

39, 53, 94, 173–4, 173–4, 180
seeing the thunder, 30, 31
Seelasettho, Phra Luang Por Jamnian,


authentic, 51, 52, 173
best self, 3
self-identity, 42, 47
true self, 3, 173

dynamic patterns of, 16, 50, 96

elements of, 48, 50, 69
model, 44, 46, 48, 57–60, 71, 86
pattern-forming, 176
phase transition, 50, 51
pivoting: The power of self-

organization, 48
role of beliefs in self-organizing, 74
role of inner knowing in self-

organizing, 90
role of memory in self-organizing,


learning, 12, 19, 42, 49
liminal, 42, 44
magnitude of, 15, 41
manifestation of, 42
in perception, 39, 44, 45, 55–7, 173
in perspective, 19, 39, 42, 44, 50,

quantum, 3, 32, 42, 49
substantial, 11, 14, 19, 44, 107
timing of, 15

Shotter, John, 14
Silverman, Lloyd, 126, 139
Simmons, Annette, 31
Simultaneity Principle, 12
six degrees of separation, 25
Skinner, B. F., 26, 92
social constructionism, 6, 94, 173–4
social networking theory, 20
Sohlberg, S., 127
somatics, 31, 89, 95, 96, 102, 105,

170, 179
Sparks, William, 33
spectrum of consciousness, 34, 35
Spence, Gordon, 60

coaching, 14, 139
growth, 140–3
influence, 11, 13, 14, 70, 72, 141,

protective, 140, 143

Stapp, Henry, 78, 85, 86

Page 218

211 Index

Steele, C. M., 125, 126n72
Stock, Je�rey, 115
subconscious, 24, 25, 51, 73, 79, 178
Sullivan, Erin, 62, 63
synchronicity, 53

tacit knowledge, 97, 105, 156
Taylor, Kathleen, 82
�ompson, Evan, 70, 100
�orndike, Edward, 26

patterns, 11, 55
rational, 28, 29, 71, 105

discontinuous, 175
external, 175
�ow, 48, 53, 115, 170
linear, 52, 120, 175–6, 175n17, 175
Newton’s absolute, 53, 175, 175n17
perspective of, 52, 117, 175
subjective, 116

tip-of-the-tongue, 37
Trail, Robert, 93, 94n19
transformation, 2, 6, 19, 20, 32–4, 40,

45, 50, 102, 135, 151, 173, 174,

transformative learning, 12, 34, 84
habits of mind, 84

Trope, Yaacov, 132
Tulving, Endel, 111n3, 112, 116, 117,

119, 136

Turing, Alan, 71

unconscious, 22, 71, 73–5, 77, 85, 87,

93, 96, 97, 113–14, 118, 123–7,
134, 135, 139, 156, 159, 161,
163, 166, 177, 182

automatic processes, 22, 73, 159
Usó Doménech, J. L., 75, 76

Varela, Francisco, 70, 100
Veltrop, Bill, 6

Wang, Qi, 123
Wasylyshyn, Karol, 35
Weinberger, Joel, 126
Welling, Hans, 28
Wentura, Dirk, 130–2
Westen, Drew, 73n1, 113n10,

113n12, 114n13, 114n15, 125,
126, 157n48, 157n49, 157n54,

Wilbur, Ken, 34
Wilson, Vietta, 31, 59n19

Zhang, Sherry, 115

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