Download Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training 5th Edition PDF

TitlePeriodization: Theory and Methodology of Training 5th Edition
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.1 MB
Total Pages355
Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
Contents
Part I: Training Theory
	Chapter 1: Basis for Training
		Scope of Training
		Objectives of Training
		Classification of Skills
		System of Training
		Adaptation
		Supercompensation Cycle and Adaptation
		Sources of Energy
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 2: Principles of Training
		Multilateral Development Versus Specialization
		Individualization
		Development of the Training Model
		Load Progression
		Sequence of the Training Load
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 3: Preparation for Training
		Physical Training
		Exercise for Physical Training
		Technical Training
		Tactical Training
		Theoretical Training
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 4: Variables of Training
		Volume
		Intensity
		Relationship Between Volume and Intensity
		Density
		Complexity
		Index of Overall Demand
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 5: Rest and Recovery
		Fatigue and Overtraining
		Recovery Theory
		Recovery Interventions and Modalities
		Summary of Major Concepts
Part II Periodization of Training
	Chapter 6: Annual Training Plan
		Periodization
		Periodization of Biomotor Abilities
		Periodization of Strength Training
		Periodization of Endurance
		Periodization of Speed
		Integrated Periodization
		Annual Training Plan Phases and Characteristics
		Chart of the Annual Training Plan
		Criteria for Compiling an Annual Plan
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 7: Peaking for Competition
		Peaking
		Defining a Taper
		Competition Phase of the Annual Plan
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 8: Training Cycles
		Microcycle
		Macrocycle
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 9: Workout Planning
		Importance of Planning
		Planning Requirements
		Types of Training Plans
		Training Session
		Daily Cycle of Training
		Modeling the Training Session Plan
		Summary of Major Concepts
Part III: Training Methods
	Chapter 10: Strength and Power Development
		Biomotor Abilities
		Strength
		Methods of Strength Training
		Manipulation of Training Variables
		Implementation of a Strength Training Regimen
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 11: Endurance Training
		Classification of Endurance
		Factors Affecting Aerobic Endurance Performance
		Factors Affecting Anaerobic Endurance Performance
		Methods for Developing Endurance
		Methods for Developing High-Intensity Exercise Endurance
		Summary of Major Concepts
	Chapter 12: Speed and Agility Training
		Speed Training
		Agility Training
		Program Design
		Summary of Major Concepts
		Appendix: Blank Charts for Annual and Four-Year Plans
		Glossary
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Periodization
Theory and Methodology

of Training

Fifth Edition

Page 177

164 Periodization

a longer rest period, so the volume of training for the new plan will be lower, possibly
around 20% and 30% of maximal. An annual training program preceding the Olym-
pics should begin with a volume of training of around 40%. The curve that repre-
sents the volume of training is progressively elevated through the preparatory phase,
reaching its summit at the end of the general preparation phase and the beginning
of the specific physical preparation phase. Conversely, during the competitive phase,
the curve that represents the amount of endurance volume decreases progressively
to below the curve that depicts intensity. This curve trails the training volume curve
through the preparatory phase and then surpasses it by the middle of the competitive
phase. Both curves undulate more during the macrocycles with many competitions.
The intensity is generally higher during the early part of a microcycle that precedes a
competition and decreases as the competition approaches to allow the athlete to rest
and regenerate before the competition. When volume of training is high, intensity of
training is generally lower. If both volume and intensity are high, the potential for
overtraining increases markedly (16).

During the early part of the macrocycle before the main competition, volume
increases, reflecting an emphasis on high-quality work. Toward the end of this mac-
rocycle the volume decreases, usually in the last two microcycles prior to the next
macrocycle. Training intensity is at first slightly lower than training volume but then
elevates progressively as the competition approaches. During unloading, however,
both curves may drop slightly depending on the type of taper being used. Tradi-
tionally, intensity is not elevated much for endurance sports, allowing both volume
and intensity to be stressed equally. However, contemporary literature suggests that
increasing intensity of endurance training with high-intensity interval training may
allow for volume to be reduced while maintaining performance capacity (40). Sports
characterized by dynamic activities that express high power outputs will require that
intensity be elevated to levels higher than the training volume curve. As for the short
subphase of competitions, volume is down and intensity is up, signifying that most
competitions are intense.

The peaking curve, or preparatory curve as it is sometimes called, is a direct result
of the interplay between volume and intensity that will affect the athlete’s level of fit-
ness or fatigue. The peaking curve generally trails both volume and intensity curves
through the preparatory phase in response to the fatigue that is developed in this
phase. The peaking curve then elevates during the precompetition and competitive
subphases in response to the reduction of fatigue that occurs as volume is decreased.
The peaking curve (preparatory curve) represents the athlete’s potential for high-level
performance as well as his level of fatigue.

In the sample chart for an annual plan (figure 6.23), the magnitude and not the
percentage of each curve signifies the emphasis placed on volume and intensity.
Expressing these curves in percentages rather than in relation to each other is more
complicated; therefore, only experienced coaches training elite athletes should use
that method of expression. Similarly, the stress curve is not included in the chart,
because its shape is affected by (and therefore resembles) the intensity curve; competi-
tion dates also affect the stress curve.

Figure 6.24 presents a hypothetical monocycle for a volleyball team. In this example
a main goal is to qualify for and win the finals of the provincial or state championship
or the university conference championship in the United States. In the example, the
team must qualify for the national championship tournament and place in the top
three teams (third being the most realistic objective). Before the league games there
are three exhibition games, which are a means of testing the team’s abilities.

Page 178

annual training Plan 165

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

4
3

3
2

2
1

2
1

2
1

2
2

1
5

M
ai

nt
en

an
ce

M
ai

nt
en

an
ce

S
tr

e
n

g
th

E
n

d
u

ra
n

ce
S

p
e

e
d

S
ki

ll
A

cq
u

is
iti

o
n

P
sy

ch
o

lo
g

ic
a

l
N

u
tr

iti
o

n
M

a
cr

o
cy

cl
e

s
M

ic
ro

cy
cl

e
s

T
ra

in
in

g
P

h
a

se

1 2 3 4 5

Peaking

P
re

pa
ra

to
ry

C
om

pe
tit

iv
e

T
A

A
M

xS
C

on
v

po
w

M
ai

nt
en

an
ce

R
eg

en
A

er
ob

ic
A

er
ob

ic
e

nd
S

pe
ci

fic
e

nd
G

am
e-

sp
ec

ifi
c

en
d

A
gi

lit
y/

R
ea

ct
io

n
tim

e
B

as
ic

te
ch

r
ev

is
io

n
G

am
e

si
m

ul
at

io
n

G
oa

l s
et

tin
g

D
ev

c
om

p
st

ra
te

gi
es

B
al

an
ce

d
di

et
H

ig
h

pr
ot

ei
n,

fa
t,

lo
w

-c
al

H
ig

h
ca

rbS
im

ul
at

e
co

m
pe

tit
io

n
st

ra
te

gi
es

H
ig

h
ca

rb
oh

yd
ra

te
B

al
an

ce
d

1
2

3
4

5
6

7
8

9
10

11
1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
6

1
7

1
8

1
9

20
2
1

22
23

24
25

26
27

28
29

30
31

32
33

34
35

36
37

38
39

40
41

42
43

44
45

46
47

48
49

50
51

52

P
e
fo

rm
a
n
ce

T
e

st
s/

S
ta

n
d

a
rd

s
P

h
ys

ic
a

l p
re

p
T

e
ch

n
ic

a
l p

re
p

T
a

ct
ic

a
l p

re
p

P
sy

ch
o

lo
g

ic
a

l p
re

p

L
o

ca
tio

n
C

om
pe

tit
io

ns

D
at

es
Training factors

%
10

0 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

29
5

12
19

26
2

16
25

30
7

4
11

18
25

2
16

23
30

7
21

28
4

11
18

25
4

1
8

15
22

29
6

13
20

27
3

24
1

15
22

9
14

21
28

9
14

11
18

25
10

17
8

P
e

a
ki

n
g

in
d

e
x

T
e

st
in

g
d

a
te

s
M

e
d

ic
a

l c
o

n
tr

o
l d

a
te

s
C

a
m

p
/S

e
m

ic
a

m
p

/R
e

st

1.
P

ro
vi

nc
ia

l


c
ha

m
pi

on
sh

ip
s

=
1

2.
N

at
io

na
l


c

ha
m

pi
on

sh
ip

s
=


3

-1

3.
W

in
9

0%
o

f


a
ll

ga
m

es
p

la
ye

d.

1.
V

er
tic

al
ju

m
p

=


3
8

cm

2.
M

us
cu

la
r

en
-


d

ur
an

ce
c

irc
ui

t


=
1

2
m

in

3.
A

gi
lit

y
=

3
6

s

1.
I

m
pr

ov
e

ge
ne

ra
l


b

od
y

st
re

ng
th

.

2.
I

m
pr

ov
e


m

us
cu

la
r


e

nd
ur

an
ce

.

3.
P

er
fe

ct
s

ho
ul

de
r


f

le
xi

bi
lit

y.

1.
I

m
pr

ov
e

se
rv

e


r
ec

ep
tio

n.

2.
I

m
pr

ov
e

se
rv

in
g


a

nd
v

ol
le

yi
ng


a

cc
ur

ac
y.

3.
I

m
pr

ov
e

al
l


t

ec
hn

ic
al

s
ki

lls


f
or

a
h

ig
he

r


e
ffi

ci
en

cy
in


g

am
e

si
tu

at
io

ns
.

1.
I

m
pr

ov
e

tim
in

g


o
f b

lo
ck

in
g

w
ith


t

w
o

pl
ay

er
s.

2.
I

m
pr

ov
e

fo
rm

at
io

n,


p
at

te
rn

s
of

b
al

l


c
irc

ul
at

io
n.

1.
I

m
pr

ov
e

m
en

ta
l


c

on
ce

nt
ra

tio
n.

2.
B

ui
ld

c
on

fid
en

ce


a
nd

e
xp

os
e

pl
ay

er
s


t

o
de

ci
si

on
-


m

ak
in

g
si

tu
at

io
ns

.

A
th

le
te

’s
n

am
e

Tr
ai

ni
ng

o
bj

ec
tiv

es

M
o

n
th

s

D
o

m
e

st
ic

In
te

rn
a

tio
n

a
l

W
e

e
ks

V
o
lu

m
e

In
te

n
si

ty

P
e
a
ki

n
g

P
hy

s
p
re

p

Te
ch

p
re

p

Ta
ct

p
re

p

P
sy

ch
p

re
p

A
dv

s
ki

ll
pr

ep

A
ug

S
ep

t
O

ct
N

ov
D

ec
Ja

n
Fe

b
M

ar
ch

A
pr

il
M

ay
Ju

ne
Ju

ly

E4492/Bompa/Periodization, 5E/333304/Fig 06.24/Tammy Page/R3-alw

Toronto
Windsor
Toronto

Windsor
Toronto
Toronto
Kingston
Sudbury
Toronto
London
Toronto
Waterloo
Toronto

Waterloo

Winnipeg

1
2

3
4

5
6

7
8

11
12

13
9

1
0

Periodization

In the example presented in figure 6.24, the periodization section is expanded
compared with figure 6.23. Included in this section are elements of periodization
for strength, endurance, speed, and nutrition. The periodization section can be
manipulated to include elements that meet the specific demands of the individual
athlete or requirements of the sport.

The ratios between the training factors are different in figures 6.24 and 6.23
as a result of the specific requirements of a team sport. In this example, technical
and tactical preparation has a higher emphasis. In the first macrocycle, physical

Figure 6.24 Monocycle annual training plan for a hypothetical volleyball team.
Prep = preparation, T = transition, AA = anatomical adaptation, Mxs = maximal strength, Conv pow =
conversion power, regen = regenerate, end = endurance, tech = technical, Adv skill prep = advanced
skill preparation, Dev comp strat = develop competitive strategies, cal = calories, carb = carbohydrates.

Page 354

Speed and Agility Training 341

depending on time restraints. Speed endurance is developed in accordance with the
strategies of tactical metabolic training (92) where three or four repetitive bouts of
exercise that last no longer than 10 min are used to develop oxidative capacity and
the ability to buffer lactate (91). The durations used for speed endurance are similar
to the intensive tempo runs presented in table 12.1.

During macrocycle 2 the emphasis shifts, with a decreasing density and frequency
of strength training (12 sessions: 3 per microcycle) and an increase in the density
and frequency of both speed and agility training and speed endurance training. In
this macrocycle major emphasis is the development of speed endurance via the use
of 2 or 3 min interval bouts that are separated by 8 to 10 min of recovery (91). These
types of intervals are similar to the special endurance training practices presented
in table 12.1.

Once macrocycle 3 is initiated, the density and frequency of training increase for
strength training, whereas the density of both speed and agility training and special
endurance training decreases (activities that model the specifics of American football).
Activities such as intensive tempo training are used in this macrocycle to maintain
the oxidative and glycolytic adaptations established in previous macrocycles. This
is accomplished by using simulated quarters in which the exercise work-to-rest pat-
terns closely match what is seen in a game of American football (39, 91, 92). In the last
macrocycle the density and frequency of strength training are reduced, whereas the
density and frequency of speed and agility training and special endurance training
(e.g., activities used in macrocycle 3) are maintained.

Microcycle
Once the characteristics of the macrocycle are established, the individual microcycles
can be constructed. One of the main factors dictating the construction of the micro-
cycles contained in a speed, agility, or speed endurance portion of an annual training
plan is the management of fatigue (91). The management of fatigue is important
because high levels of fatigue can affect the athlete’s ability to effectively perform
speed- and agility-based drills with appropriate technique. It is advisable that the
athlete perform speed- and agility-based activities under a minimal amount of fatigue
to maximize technical proficiency and allow for the mastery of skills. This requires
that the athlete perform these activities after completing an appropriate warm-up
that emphasizes a combination of general and specific warm-up activities (54); as
well, the coach must incorporate adequate rest between repetitions or sets. It may
be warranted to organize the different training components into multiple sessions
within the training day (figure 12.8).

Unlike speed and agility training, speed endurance training is designed to increase
the athlete’s ability to resist and tolerate fatigue. This is accomplished by specifically
taxing the metabolic systems (92, 91) by manipulating training variables such as the
work-to-rest interval, duration, and intensity of the sprint bout. Increasing the volume
of multiple bouts of sprinting can result in very specific metabolic adaptations that
can aid in the development of speed endurance.

When expanding the macrocycle structure for the American football example
presented in figure 12.7, the coach can construct a microcycle model (figure 12.8).
In this model sequenced training blocks are used with alterations in the density and
frequency of training for each training factor. Because multiple factors are trained on
the same day, fatigue management is important, so splitting the factors into distinct
training sessions within the day is warranted.

Page 355

342 Periodization

Month Macrocycle Weeks Emphasis Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

May 1 1-3 Strength training ST ST ST ST

Speed and agility SA SA

Speed endurance SE SE

Special
endurance

June 2 4-7 Strength training ST ST ST

Speed and agility SA SA SA

Speed endurance SE SE SE

Special
endurance

July 3 8-10 Strength training ST ST ST ST

Speed and agility SA SA

Speed endurance

Special
endurance

SPE SPE SPE

4 11-14 Strength training ST ST ST

August Speed and agility SA SA SA

Speed endurance

Special
endurance

SPE SPE SPE

Figure 12.8 Microcycle structure for a 14-week sequenced preparation phase of training plan for university
or professional American football.
ST = strength training; SA= speed agility, SE= speed endurance, and SPE= special endurance. on days when multiple
activities are scheduled, the activities must be separated so that one factor is addressed in a morning session and the other
at least 4 hr later. If time constraints dictate that both factors must be trained in the same session, the priority item should be
addressed first. on days when SA and ST occur, the ST generally for this session focuses on upper-body activities.
Adapted from Plisk 2008 (91) and Haff et al. 2004 (39).

SuMMary oF Major ConCeptS
The development of speed, agility, and speed endurance is important for the majority
of sports, so these important sport performance characteristics must be integrated
into the periodized training plan. Long-distance training methods will impede the
development of both speed and agility and should be avoided when attempting to
maximize these performance abilities. Both maximal strength and power are impor-
tant characteristics, which emphasizes the need for an integrated strength training
program for athletes who are attempting to maximize speed performance.

Some very specific movement mechanics are essential to maximizing an athlete’s
speed of movement (see Plisk 91) and facilitate change-of-direction activities. Although
speed plays a role in change-of-direction performance, change-of-direction or agil-
ity activities must be included in the periodized training plan. Simply practicing
straight-line running will not significantly improve agility. Many athletes spend large
amounts of time performing straight-line training tasks, but it may be warranted to
use more change-of-direction tasks that emphasize acceleration, deceleration, changes
in direction, and reacceleration activities. It also may be warranted to include the
implements used in competition (e.g., soccer ball, basketball).

Similer Documents