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TitleParaphrasing
TagsAdverb Sentence (Linguistics) Syntax Style (Fiction) Language Mechanics
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10/31/2012

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Angela Koch
([email protected])

Student Learning Advisory Service

Writing Well - Paraphrasing

What is „paraphrasing‟?


expressing somebody else‟s ideas in your

own language or words


accurately and thoroughly



one legitimate way of „borrowing‟ from a source

(other ways are quoting/ summarising)

When to paraphrase:



when ideas are more important than author‟s

style



when the original language is difficult to

understand

(e.g. full of jargon, complex or elaborate )

Why paraphrase:

Because it is better than quoting

(no break in style)



Because it demonstrates your understanding
of the issue/ topic



Because it helps you to understand the
meaning of the original



How to paraphrase

Understand the original

Take notes (in bullet points)


„Report‟ what you have understood

Compare with original

Put “unique terms” into quotation marks

Cite the source

T/F? For a good paraphrase...

1. remove or replace unusual words

2. adopt the same sentence structure as the source writer

3. reduce the content of the paraphrase to keep it as simple

as possible

4. express the main idea concisely

5. use the same words as in the original

6. reformulate the main ideas in your own words

7. copy useful pieces of the original text

8. use a suitable reporting verb and provided an in-text

reference detail

9. retain unique terms but highlight them as quotes



T

T

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

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Example
taken from OWL – Online Writing Lab, Purdue University, Australia 2006













--------------------

Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation

from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted

material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).

okay



Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking

notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final

[research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final

manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter.

Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact

transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

Example
taken from OWL – Online Writing Lab, Purdue University, Australia 2006












-------




Students often use too many direct quotations when they
take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final

research paper. In fact, probably only about one thenth of

the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So

it is important to limit the amount of source material copied

while taking notes.
plagiarism

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking

notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final

[research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final

manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter.

Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact

transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

Example
taken from OWL – Online Writing Lab, Purdue University, Australia 2006













-------







Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking

notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final

[research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final

manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter.

Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact

transcribing of source materials while taking notes.

In research papers students often quote excessively,
failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable
level. Since the problem usually originates during note
taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded
verbatim (Lester 46-47).
good

Working from the original:


 change the overall word order


 change active sentences   passive sentences

 change the order of the subjects in sentences (with
several clauses)

 Change negative to positive

 change linking words

 change sentence length by joining or splitting ideas



 will lead to changes in grammar and syntax

(but should not alter meaning)



Active & Passive


within the student body at the University of



(passive)



The student body at the University of Kent
represents over 130 different nationalities.

(active)



Students from more than 130 nations study at the
University of Kent.

(active)

Working from the original:


 change the words


 use synonyms (but be careful!)

 change nouns   verbs

 change adjectives   adverbs



will leads to changes in grammar and syntax

(but should not alter meaning)

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Few more tips


Do not change specialised vocabulary or
expressions.


Do not change the tone

(formal, ironic, critical …)


Do not add information, neither leave
essential details out.


Try to sound like “you” but not too casual.




Since the time of Descartes, it is estimated that no fewer

than five hundred attempts have been made to create

artificial languages for international use. The most

successful by far has been Esperanto, a language

constructed around the end of the nineteenth century by

Dr. Zamenhof of Poland. (Pei 1993: 3)

Changing words/ terms


Since the early seventeenth century, an estimated five

hundred artificial languages have been invented for

international communication. The most used is Esperanto,

invented by a Polish linguist during the late 19th century.

Step by step approach

Since the early seventeenth century, an estimated five

hundred artificial languages have been invented for

international communication. The most used is

Esperanto, invented by a Polish linguist during the late

19th century.

Change sentence structure


Esperanto is the most used artificial language of the 500

or so attempts at creating a verbal communication tool

for international use.

Step by step approach cont.

New version


Pei (1993) pointed out that Esperanto is the most used

artificial language of the 500 or so attempts at creating a

verbal communication tool for international use.



Since the time of Descartes, it is estimated that no fewer

than five hundred attempts have been made to create

artificial languages for international use. The most

successful by far has been Esperanto, a language

constructed around the end of the nineteenth century by

Dr. Zamenhof of Poland. (Pei 1993: 3)

Step by step approach cont.

Limitations?

“Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end

there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global

reach has been found, stopped and defeated”.
Bush ,G.W. (2001) Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People, United States Capitol Washington D.C. September 20.



In 2001, the US President stated that America‟s „war on

terror‟ started with Al-Qaeda but would continue until all

groups of terrorists across the world had been “found,

stopped and defeated” (Bush 2001).

Over to you …

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Exercise 1: Using synonyms

The responsibility for standards and quality in the

UK rests with individual, autonomous universities.



Accountability for „standards and quality‟ lies with

each self governing HE institution in the UK.

Exercise 2: Changing word class

There‟s a managers‟ meeting every week in room 1.



The managers meet every week in room 1.





Somebody is knocking on the door.



There is a knock at the door.

Exercise 3 :Changing the word order

a) Climate change will soon be hitting hard; lifestyles

will have to change for civilisation to survive into

the next century.



For civilisation to survive into the next century,

lifestyles will have to change as climate change will

soon be hitting hard.

b) Active versus passive



Earlier this year, one of Europe's largest warehouses

was opened in Swansea by Amazon.




Amazon opened one of Europe's largest warehouses in

Swansea earlier this year.



c) Negative versus positive

While most 17 to 21-year-olds claim to have walked or

cycled rather than travel by car for environmental

reasons, few are prepared to give up even one trip by

air over the next decade.



a) … not many are prepared to give up …


b) Only few 17 to 21-year-olds admit to preferring car

travel to cycling or walking …

d) Long to short

About a decade and a half ago certain scholars began to
call attention to the importance of "soft power" in world
affairs, which they defined as the capacity to win friends
abroad and persuade other nations to agree to policies that
you want.



About 15 years ago some scholars began to call attention
to the importance of „soft power‟ in world affairs. They
defined it as the capacity to win friends abroad and
persuade other nations to agree to policies that you want.

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