Download Our Living World: Earth's Biomes - Volume 2: Tundra PDF

TitleOur Living World: Earth's Biomes - Volume 2: Tundra
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.9 MB
Total Pages92
Document Text Contents
Page 1

T
undra

T R A D I T I O N B O O K S ® , M A P L E P L A I N , M I N N E S O T A

A N E W T R A D I T I O N I N C H I L D R E N ’ S P U B L I S H I N G TM

2volume
OUR LIVING WORLD: EARTH’S BIOMES

Tundra B a r b a r a A .S o m e r v i l l

Page 2



In gratitude to George R. Peterson Sr. for introducing me to the beauty of creation
—George R. Peterson Jr., Publisher, Tradition Books®

Published in the United States of America by Tradition Books® and distributed to the school
and library market by The Child’s World®

[ACKNOWLEDGMENTS]
For Editorial Directions, Inc.: E. Russell Primm, Editorial Director; Dana Meachen Rau, Line
Editor; Katie Marsico, Associate Editor; Judi Shiffer, Associate Editor and Library Media
Specialist; Matthew Messbarger, Editorial Assistant; Susan Hindman, Copy Editor; Lucia
Raatma, Proofreaders; Ann Grau Duvall, Peter Garnham, Deborah Grahame, Katie
Marsico, Elizabeth K. Martin, and Kathy Stevenson, Fact Checkers; Tim Griffin/IndexServ,
Indexer; Cian Loughlin O’Day, Photo Researcher; Linda S. Koutris, Photo Selector

For The Design Lab: Kathleen Petelinsek, design, art direction, and cartography;
Kari Thornborough, page production

[PHOTOS]
Cover/frontispiece: Corbis.
Interior: Animals Animals/Earth Scenes: 16 (Bradley W. Stahl), 38 (Studio Carlo Dani), 62
(Erwin & Peggy Bauer), 67 (Maria Zorn), 73 (McDonald Wildlife Photography), 81 (Breck
P. Kent), 88 (OSF/Doug Allan); W. Perry Conway/Corbis: 41, 57; Corbis: 8 (Liz Hymans), 12
(Andrew Brown; Ecoscene), 15 (Wolfgang Kaehler), 20 (Dave G. Houser), 30 (Arthur
Morris), 32 (Steve Kaufman), 33 (Eric and David Hosking), 42 (Charles Mauzy), 47 (Tom
Brakefield), 54 (Lowell Georgia), 55 (Scott T. Smith), 59 (Kevin Schafer), 60 (Hubert
Stadler), 64 (Joe McDonald), 84 (John Noble); Michael DeFreitas: 75; Dembinsky Photo
Associates: 21 (Pekka Parvianinen), 46 (Darrell Gulin), 53 (Dominique Braud); Digital
Vision: 28, 50, 83; Patrick Endres/Alaskaphotographics.com: 51, 52, 58, 69, 76, 78; Frank
Lane Picture Agency/Corbis: 22 (Philip Perry), 80 (Roger Wilmhurst); D. Robert & Lorri
Franz/Corbis: 35, 37; Getty Images/Brand X Pictures: 9; Darrell Gulin/Corbis: 48, 91;
Wolfgang Kaehler: 27; A. Kuznetsov/Art Directors & TRIP Photo Library: 7; Photodisc: 18,
24, 26, 36, 39, 43, 61, 68, 70, 77, 90; Robert Pickett/Corbis: 66, 82; Crii Rad/Constantin
Blanc/Corbis Sygma: 86; Galen Rowell/Corbis: 5, 11; Gary Schultz: 17, 44, 89; Kennan
Ward/Corbis: 23, 34, 49; Peter Weimann/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes: 4, 29.

[L IBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA]
CIP data available

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Barbara A. Somervill is the author

of many books for children. She loves

learning and sees every writing

project as a chance to learn new

information or gain a new under-

standing. Ms. Somervill grew up in

New York State, but has also lived in

Toronto, Canada; Canberra, Australia;

California; and South Carolina. She

currently lives with her husband in

Simpsonville, South Carolina.



CONTENT ADVISER

Susan Woodward, Professor of

Geography, Radford University,

Radford, Virginia



Page 46

voles to large muskrats and

porcupines. Most rodents dig

burrows with several entries,

rooms, and escape hatches.

Arctic ground squirrels such

as marmots live in colonies.

Their burrows may have as

many as 50 tunnels and

dozens of rooms.

Lemmings are tundra

rodents that produce many

young. A female has her first

litter in March. From then on,

she produces five or six more

46

� An Arctic ground squirrel will pass the tundra winter in a warm, underground burrow.

Page 47

litters before the next winter.

An average litter has four to

eight young. Before female

lemmings are a month old,

they can produce litters.

Within one summer, a male

lemming may be a father,

grandfather, and great grand-

father—several times over!

Most tundra predators eat

lemmings. Because lemmings

usually weigh only about 2

ounces (57 grams), it takes

several lemmings to make a

meal. An adult snowy owl eats

a dozen lemmings a day.

Snowshoe hares, Arctic

hares, and pikas are slightly

larger prey. Hawks, foxes, lynx,

wolves, and coyotes all hunt

hares. Hares evade predators

by running, hopping, and

ducking down their holes.

Snowshoe hares run 27 miles

(43 km) per hour in short

bursts. They can cover 10

feet (3 m) in one jump. Like

Arctic foxes, snowshoe hares

wear white coats in winter

and brown for the

summer. Their col-

oring helps the

hares “hide” on

open ground.

47

[ P r e y ]

� A snowshoe rabbit’s white coat blends in with
the surrounding snow. A quick getaway saves
this bunny from becoming breakfast.

WOULD YOU BELIEVE?

A pair of lemmings and three

generations with six females per

litter may produce as many as

4,000 young in one year.

!

Page 91

not bounce back

from human abuse.

When polar bears,

snow leopards, and

mountain goats no

longer trek the tun-

dra, the loss will be

ours. Extinction is

a problem with no

solution.

native keepers. Native people

still kill some animals for

meat and skins. They do so

for subsistence living. Hunt-

ing for subsistence living is

allowed by law.

Tundra is fragile. It can-

not withstand oil and gas

drilling, overhunting, or pollu-

tion. Tundra ecosystems can-

91
� A musk ox grazes on wildflowers in Alaska.

� The U.S. Park Service protects this regal landscape, which is found in Denali National
Park, Alaska.

WORDS TO KNOW . . .

subsistence living (suhb-SIS-

tents LIV-ing) humans using

local plants and animals in

order to live; when people rely

on what they are able to pro-

duce themselves instead of a

cash economy

?

Page 92

C
ha

rt
o

f
Sp

ec
ie

s

92

[ T u n d r a ]

� The above chart gives a starting point for identifying key species. Each tundra environment has its own
key species. The above chart lists some of those species.

Note: Caribou and reindeer are the same species. In North America, the wild species are called caribou. In
Europe, they are caribou or reindeer, depending upon the location. In Siberia (Asia), they are called reindeer.

[Bold-faced entries are the ones discussed in the text.]

CONTINENT
KEYSTONE
SPECIES

FLAGSHIP
SPECIES

UMBRELLA
SPECIES

INDICATOR
SPECIES

AFRICA
(MT. KILIMANJARO
ONLY)

bees, beetles lammergeiers,
giant lobelias

lammergeiers lichens, sedges,
tussocks, insects

ASIA pikas, bees,
beetles, reindeer,
gray wolves

Siberian cranes,
marmots, snow
leopards, musk
oxen

Asiatic black bears,
snow leopards,
wild yaks, musk
oxen

lichens, sedges,
tussocks, insects

EUROPE reindeer, pikas,
bees, beetles, gray
wolves, chamois,
caribou (reindeer),
lemmings

polar bears,
wolves, chamois,
lynx

polar bears, arctic
wolves

polar bears,
lichens, sedges,
tussocks, insects

NORTH
AMERICA

caribou, pikas,
pocket gophers,
bees, beetles, gray
wolves, snow
geese, lemmings

wolves, polar bears,
caribou, grizzly
bears, peregrine
falcons, musk oxen,
Rocky Mountain
bighorn sheep

grizzly bears, polar
bears, Arctic
wolves, Rocky
Mountain bighorn
sheep

polar bears,
lichens, sedges,
tussocks, Rocky
Mountain bighorn
sheep, white-
crowned sparrows,
insects

SOUTH
AMERICA

bees, beetles guanacos, vicuñas guanacos, vicuñas lichens, sedges,
tussocks, insects

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