Download Oilwell Fishing Operations - Gore Kemp PDF

TitleOilwell Fishing Operations - Gore Kemp
File Size18.7 MB
Total Pages126
Table of Contents
Document Text Contents
Page 1



e Gulf Publishing Company
C Book Division

Houston, London, Paris, Tokyo

Page 2


Copyright @ 1986 by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston,
Texas. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of
America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced
in any form without permission of the publisher.

Library of CongressCataloging-in-Publication Data
Kemp, Gore.

Oilwell fishing operations.

Includes index.
1. Oil wells-Maintenance and repair. I. Title.

TN871.K397 1986 622 ' .3382 86-14889

ISBN 0-87201-316-2


Page 63

--~ . : ~ Type-..___~- I
This was the old stand-by for years for

fishing bit cones and similar junk from
an open hole. It consists of the top sub or
bushing, a bowl, a shoe, and usually two
sets offinger-type catchers (Figure 9-3).
This tool is still used quite often, and it
is made to circulate out the fill and to cut
a core in the formation. The two sets of
catchers, one dressed with short fingers,
help to break the core off and retrieve it.
Any junk that is in the bottom of the hole
is retrieved on top of the core.

With all catcher-type junk baskets, the
catcher must rotate freely in the bowl or
shoe. As the tool is run down over junk,
rotating and circulating, the catcher
snags on the junk and remains stationary
as the bowl and shoe rotate around it. If
the catcher is fouled with trash, exces-
sive paint or corrosion, or other foreign
material, it will not rotate and the fin-
gers will be broken off, resulting in ad-
ditional junk in the well bore.








Figure 9-3. Core-type junk bas-
ket. (Courtesy of Bowen Tools.)

)) LooseJunk Fishing

Junk Baskets


Reverse Circulation

In many workover operations, we "re-
verse circulate" the fluid by pumping it
down the annulus and returning it
through the work string. This makes it
possible to circulate out larger and
heavier particles than when pumping the
"long way," or pumping down the work
string with returns through the annulus.
In many operations, the workover fluid
need not be nearly as viscous if it can be
reverse circulated. However, in open
holes, it is seldom possible to reverse
circulate due to pumping into the forma-
tion. Nevertheless, the reversing action
is extremely helpful in kicking into the
barrel and catcher junk that might other-

Page 64

58 Oilwell Fishing Operations

wise be held away from the catcher by the fluid
flow. With this in mind, in recent years, two dif-
ferent designs of reverse circulation junk baskets
have been introduc~d.

The first design incorporates jets or venturis
that are opened when a ball is dropped down the
work string (Figure 9-4). The space behind a jet
has a reduced pressure, therefore, as the jet
forces fluid from the bowl into the annulus, the
interior of the bowl is at a lower pressure caus-
ing wellbore fluid to enter through the catcher.

The other design incorporates an inner barrel
with the fluid flow between the outer and inner
barrels when a ball is dropped and closes the
center flow through the seat (Figure 9-5). In this
design, after washing the wellbore sufficiently to
remove all fill, the ball is circulated down, and
when it seats the fluid flow is diverted between
the two barrels and flow is actuated through the
upper ports into the annulus from the inner bar-
rel. Reverse circulation in the immediate area of
the junk basket is thereby created.

Caution shouldbe observed in dropping or cir-
culating any ball or other restriction plug down
the drill pipe or tubing. As noted previously, it is
most necessary to caliper, measure, and note all
dimensions of all tools that are run downhole.
Some have restricted inside diameters and will
not allow balls or other items to pass. It should
be standard practice to check this carefully be-
fore dropping anything down the work string. &.

Figure 9-4. Jet-type junk
basket. (Courtesy of Hous-
ton Engineers, Inc.)

Friction Sockets

Many times the standard manufactured junk basket will not adapt to the
particular problem due to the size and shape of the junk in the hole. Inge-
nuity needs to be used to devise alternatives and adapt to the problem at
hand. If the I.D. of the catcher is not large enough to accommodate the
junk, a shoe or length of pipe may be used as the body of a shop-made
junk basket. A series of holes may be bored or burned around the circum-
ference of the material and then steel cables brazed into place forming a

Page 125

Fishing tool operator
and bumper jar/constant weight, 34
free point observation, 17

Free point instruments, 16-17
with electric submergible pump, 82

Friction sockets, 58
Grab, wireline, 78-79
Guide, wall hook, 89-92
Hydraulic clean-out tools, 53-54
Hydraulic pull tool, 108-110
Hydrostatic bailer, 62-63
Impression block, 107-108

collapsed casing and, 102
Induction log, 92
Internal cutter, 26
Jars, 33-41

accelerator, 36
bumper jars, 33
drilling jars, 40
fishing retrievable packers, 86
hydraulic jars, 34
intensifier, 36
jarring strings, 34
oil jars, 34
run as insurance, 3
run with swages and rollers, 104
surface jars, 39

Jet cut, 24-25
Jet sub, 89
Junk baskets, 57-63

boot basket, 62
clulow socket, 61
core type, 57
friction sockets, 58
poor boy, 60
reverse circulation, 57

Junk shots, 64
Knuckle joint, 90-92
Liners, 97-98

"scab," 97
stressed steel, 100-101

casing inspection, 98
cement bond, 93
induction, 92
stuck pipe, 18

Magnets, 55-56
ditch, 106
electromagnet, 56
permanent, 55

Marine cutter, 111
Marine spear, 112

Index 119

Mechanical cut, 26
Mill-out joint, 87
Mills, carbide, 69-73

collapsed casing and, 102
flat bottom, 69
pilot, 71
section, 95
string, 72
tapered, 70
watermelon, 72

Mouse traps, 105
Mud motors, 107
Nomograph, 13-14
Operator, fishing tool

free point observation, 17
and bumper jar use for constant

weight, 34
Overshots, 27-29

with cable guide, 75
continuous, 88
with knuckle joint, 90
releasing, 29
short catch, 29
side door, 77

Packer retrieving tool, 86-87
Packers, permanent

fishing, 86-87
whipstock set in, 93

Packers, retrievable, 85-86
Parting pipe, 19-26

by back-off, 20-23
by chemical cut, 22-24
by jet cut, 24-25
by mechanical cut, 25-26
by outside back-off, 22

Patch, casing, 98-10 I
stressed steel liner, 100-10 1

Permanent packers, 86-87
Pilot mills, 71
Pipe sticking, 5-41
Pipe stretch, 12-15
Pipe, stuck

blowout stuck, 6
cemented, 6
differentially stuck, 7-11
key seat, 6
log, 18
lost circulation, 7
mechanically, 5
mud stuck, 5
sloughed hole, 7
undergage hole, 7

Page 126


120 Oilwell Fishing Operations

Pipe, washover, 43-54
length and, 47

Poor boy junk baskets, 60-61
Probability factors, 2, 49
Pull tool, hydraulic, 108-110
Pumps, electric submergible, 82-84

Radioactive sources, 77
Reamer, blade, 72
Retrievable packers, 85-86
Retrieving tool, packer, 86-87
Reverse circulation junk basket, 57-59
Reversing tool, 105-106
Roller, casing, 104
Rope knife, 81
Rope spear, 78
Rotary shoes, 47-48

tooth type, 73
carbide, 65-73

Safety joint, 46
unlatching type, 53
pull tools and, 110

Section mills, 95-96
Shoe, rotary, 47-48
Shots, junk, 64
Side door overshot, 77
Sidetrack junk, 93-94
Spears, 31-32

center, 78
marine, 112
pack-off, 32
rope, 78
stop sub, 32
releasing, 31
washpipe, 49-52

Spotting fluid, 10
Stabilizer, nonrotating, 112
Stressed steel liner, 100-10 1
Stretch, 12-15

curve, 15
formula, 13
nomograph, 14

String mills, 72
String shot, 20-21

after washover, 49
through reversing tool, 106

Stuck pipe log, 18
Subs, 89
Submergible pumps, electric, 82-84
Surge method, 9
Swage mandrel, 103-104
Tapered mills, 70

box, 79-80, 110
tapered, 110-111

Test tool, drill stem, 11

catching, 27-31
hydraulic clean-out, 53
hydraulic pull, 108
marine cutting, III
reversing, 105

Torque, 21
working down, 86

Thngsten carbide, 65-73
application, 67
design, 66
dressing, 66
material, 65

Unlatching joint, 53
Wall hook guide, 89-92
Washover pipe, 43-54

length is important, 47
specifications, 44-45
threads, 46-47

Washpipe spear, 50-52
Whipstock, 93-94
Wireline fishing, 74-84

cable guide, 74
cut and strip, 74
cutting line, 80
grabs, 78
parted line, 78
side door overshot, 77

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