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1 EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY • ���� | �

Criminology in EuropE

2012|1 • VOL. �� • www.esc-eurOcrim.Org

Newsletter of the European Society of Criminology

Victimology and Victim Support
in Eastern Europe

Page 2

2 criminology in EUroPE • ���� | �

����| �
VOL.��
Criminology in Europe is published by the
European Society of Criminology.

web www.escnewsletter.org

editor Csaba Györy

editorial office:
Max Planck Institute for Foreign and
International Criminal Law
Günterstalstrasse 73
79100 Freiburg i. br.
Phone: +49 (761) 7081-314
Fax: +49 (761) 7081-294
email: [email protected]

The european society of criminology is a
scientific institution founded under the Literary
and Scientific Institutions Act 1854, a statute of
the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

President HeNrIk THaM
President-elect Vesna nikolić-RistanoVić
Past President MIkLós Lévay
executive secretary MarCeLo aebI
Journal editor PauL kNePPer
Newsletter editor Csaba GyőRy
member rosseLLa seLMINI
member aNa Cerezo
member aLeksaNdras dobryNINas
member aLberTo saIz GarITaoNaNdIa
(organizer of the 2012 annual Conference)

Communications should be addressed as follows

To the president:
Henrik Tham
stockholms universitet
kriminologiska institutionen
Universitetsvägen �� C, plan
���� �� stockholm
email: [email protected]
[email protected]

To the business office:
Marcelo aebi
university of Lausanne
esC-ICdP-sorge-bCH
CH-1015 lausanne, switzerland
Phone: 41 21 692 4638
Fax: 41 21 692 4645
email: [email protected]

IssN 1729-8164

For advertising and marketing queries,
including advertising on the Newslet-
ter website, please contact the editor.

Henrik Tham

ThE ArrogAnCE of powEr –
A SwEdiSh ExAmplE

The scandinavian research Council for Criminology celebrates its 50th
anniversary this year. The purpose of the Council is to further crimino-
logical research within the member countries and advise the scandinavi-
an governments and the Nordic Council on issues related to criminology.
The contribution of the swedish Government to the jubilee is to with-
draw all funds from the Council. With sweden as the main contributor it
is unclear if and how the Council can continue to exist.

the swedish Minister for Justice, beatrice ask—the power behind
this action—has given two separate reasons for her action. the first one
is that the government’s priority is to keep the stockholm Prize and the
International stockholm Criminology symposium that is held in con-
nection with the award ceremony. The annual state contribution to the
Council, approximately 150,000 euro, will be used to secure the future
existence of this prestigious award in criminology. this is, rather unfor-
tunately, named after the city where the decision was taken to deprive
the scandinavian research Council for Criminology of its funds. I am
convinced that this is not in any way in line with the intentions of the
donors or the prize committee consisting of internationally well-known
criminologists.

The second reason given is that the swedish part of the Council does
not deliver. The Minister for Justice states that what is produced by
the Council in general and the swedish part in particular is not relevant
to the department of Justice. The Government doesn’t get value for
money. The Council holds annual research conferences followed by a
published report of the contributions. Papers presented here during the
last three years by swedish criminologists include research on violence
in work life, criminality and life chances, self-reported criminality, and

Message froM the president

Page 6

About the University

– One of the largest Universities in the UK
and Ireland with over 25,000 undergraduate
and postgraduate students.

− A long and distinguished history of univer-
sity education since 1849.

− A member of the Russell Group of leading
UK research universities.

− A recent £200 million investment in state
of the art library facilities, the Elms student
village, and a dedicated International &
Postgraduate Student Centre.

Research Performance

The Institute of Criminology and Criminal
Justice is located in the School of Law.
The School of Law received an impressive
top-ten ranking in the 2008 Research As-
sessment Exercise, finishing 7th in the UK.
95% of research in School of Law is rated
as international in quality, and 60% rated as
world leading.

ICCJ Staff Research Interests

Clare Dwyer – Penal policy; prisoners; tran-
sitional justice

Graham Ellison – Police reform; community
safety; security governance

Ruth Jamieson – War and crime; gender
and armed conflict; effects of imprisonment

Shadd Maruna – Desistance; psychosocial
criminology; prisoner reintegration

Anne-Marie McAlinden – Child sexual

abuse; sex offenders; restorative justice

Kieran McEvoy – Restorative justice; truth
recovery; transitional justice

Marny Requa – Truth recovery; human
rights; transitional justice

Phil Scraton – Deaths in controversial cir-
cumstances; criminological theory; prisons

Pete Shirlow - Segregation and violence;
ethnosectarianism; political violence

Hakeem Yusuf – Transitional justice; legal &
political theory; comparative criminal justice

Criminology and Criminal Justice
Programmes in the School of Law

− MSSc Criminology

− MSSc Criminal Justice

− LLM in Human Rights & Criminal Justice

The School of Law also has a vibrant PhD
research programme. Staff welcome pro-
spective PhD applications in their area of
research.

Further Information

Further details about Criminology & Criminal
Justice programmes at Queen’s and the ap-
plication process are available online at the
School of Law’s website:

www.law.qub.ac.uk

Alternatively contact the School’s Postgrad-
uate Office at:

[email protected]

Page 7

7 EuropEAn SoCiETy of Criminology • ���� | �

introduction of restorative justice measures, as well
as changes of civil and labour laws, together with the
new laws on work related abuse, organised crime,
war crimes, anti-discrimination and gender equality,
contributed to the harmonisation of serbian legisla-
tion with international standards to a great extent.
a range of protection orders can be issued in civil
procedure, while their violation is punishable as the
most lenient form of the criminal offence of domestic
violence. The 2009 changes of the Criminal Code
also introduced a new security measure of prohibition
to approach and communicate with victims, which is
important for protection of victims after the trial. The
Criminal Code also provides that rape is punishable
regardless of the relationship between the offender
and the victim (hence including spouses as well) and
regardless of the sex of the victim and the perpetrator.
Counseling of and support to victims of violence, as
well as sos hotlines are for the first time recognized
legally as victim support providers in 2011.

also, since 2008, serbian official statistics data
contain basic information about victims, Moreover,
many training events for various professionals, includ-
ing police, social workers, judges, prosecutors and
health workers, were organized by non-governmental
victim organizations. victimology society of serbia
organised many national and international conferences
dealing with various victim-related issues, such as war
victimisation, domestic violence, as well as conferenc-
es on truth and reconciliation (2002, 2004 and 2009),
and alternative sanctions and victims. since 2010,
vds has started to organise regular annual conferenc-
es. in addition, it introduced yearly awards for young
talented researchers dealing with victimology issues as
an encouragement and incentive for young people to
engage in this kind of research, as well as the awards
for special contribution to victim’s rights and develop-
ment of the non-violent and inclusive approach, in
dealing with past conflicts, called third way.

The society carried out many victimological re-
searches such as victimisation surveys on partner
and domestic violence. (nikolic-Ristanovic, 2002a;
nikolic-Ristanovic, 2010), research on victim ser-
vices (nikolic, 2007; Copic, 2007; nikolic-Ristanovic,
2007), trafficking in women, children and men
(nikolic-Ristanovic et al, 2004; bjerkan, 2005; nikolic-
Ristanovic, 2009), victims and restorative justice

(Copic, 2010), victims and reconciliation in post-con-
flict society (nikolic-Ristanovic, Hanak, 2004; nikolic-
Ristanovic, srna, 2008), legal position of victims
(nikolić-Ristanović, ćopić, 2011) etc.

apart from the Victimology society, other nGos
(domestic and international) and individual research-
ers have recently conducted some relevant victimo-
logical research as well5. These include surveys on
domestic violence, trafficking in women and children,
child abuse, elderly people as victims, homophobic
violence, work related abuse, victim services, compen-
sation for victims, etc (otasevic, 2005; Garcia-More-
no et al, 2006; konstantinovic-Vilic, Petrusic, 2004
and 2007; babovic, Ginic, Vukovic, 2010). also during
2004 and 2009-10, surveys on abuse of the elderly
were conducted as well (kostic, 2010; stevkovic and
Dimitrijevic, 2011).

since 1998, victimology has been taught as part of
the criminology course at the law Faculty, Univer-
sity of Nis. The course was based on the criminology
textbook by slobodanka konstantinovic-vilic and
Vesna nikolic-Ristanovic who, for the first time ever
in serbia introduced the topics such as crime victims,
victimology, child abuse, domestic violence, marital
rape, battered women movement, feminist methodol-
ogy and feminist theory in a university textbook. The
text has since been revised and updated with other
victimological topics such as trafficking in human be-
ings, work related abuse, stalking, abuse of the elderly,
etc. in 2007, victimology became a separate elec-
tive course at the faculties of Law (Nis) and special
education and Rehabilitation (belgrade University),
as well as at the Police academy and the Faculty for
security in belgrade.

The development of crime victim services was
particularly intensified after the social changes in
2000 as well. the first and so far the only victim sup-
port service of general type, i.e. which offers support
to victims of all crimes and of both sexes, including
prisoners as victims and abused women who commit
crime was established in 2003 by the victimology
society of serbia. after 2000, the first victim services
units were established within state institutions as well.
state services mostly followed a general trend in the
developement of NGo services in terms of their
focus on women and children victims of violence.
since 2010, new trends have been noticed suggesting

5 It is worth mentioning that a large part of this research was conducted by VDS members, who conducted researches either for their MA and
PhD thesis or within other NGOs and institutions.

Page 11

11 EuropEAn SoCiETy of Criminology • ���� | �

researchers, e.g., forms interwoven in the routine
patterns of everyday life, in the working place and
at home. A similarly critical attitude has also been
shown by the next research study on victimology
– dealing with the “cult of the victim” (Petrovec,
2004).The purpose of the research project was to
study psychological and sociological mechanisms
when persons or institutions become victimised.

The last research project to be placed within the
group projects attempting at theoretical generalisa-
tions dealt with “Women, violence, victimisation and
the (criminal) law system in the context of crisis of
post-modern transformation” (kanduč, 2009). the
study is concerned with the problem of female crime
from criminological and criminal law perspective and
addresses the fundamental dilemmas of the “wom-
en’s issue” in the post-modern society.

cONcLuDiNg remarks
When looking back to the history of victimology in
slovenia, it becomes clear how the subject devel-
oped and what issues the research concentrated on.
in the 1960s, it started with the analysis of particular
kinds of victims and their contribution to the com-
mission of the offence, but later it developed not
only into a much broader discipline but it also under-
went a significant transformation: it largely became
occupied with an interest in developing various insti-
tutions of victim support. It also became more and
more interested in the structural causes of victimisa-
tion as its focus moved from individual victims to
the social context of the victimization process. Only
after all these developments did it arrive at theoreti-
cal considerations. as to its practical application,
the impact of victimological research is mostly felt
in the ways the criminal justice system deals with
minor crime—different forms of procedures divert-
ing less important offences (and offenders) from
criminal justice system were introduced on the basis
of some victimological research projects. and finally,
victimology certainly contributed to developing new
forms of help and support to different categories of
victims, especially to those particularly vulnerable:
children and women.

bošnjak, M.: teoretična, ideološka in kriminalitetnopolitična
izhodišča obnavljalne pravičnosti. Zbornik znanstvenih
razprav, ljubljana 60 (2000) 1, s. 17-50.

Dachauski procesi (raziskovalno poročilo z dokumenti). lju-

bljana, komunist 1990, 1084 s.
Filipčič, k. et al.: Poravnavanje v kazenskem postopku. lju-

bljana, inštitut za kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti 2008, 208 s.
(Raziskava št. 156)

Hentig. H. von: The criminal and his victim: studies in the soci-
ology of crime. new Haven, yale university press 1948, 461 s.

kanduč, Z. et al.: Ženske, nasilje, viktimizacije in (kazensko)
pravni sistem v kriznem kontekstu postmodernizacijskih trans-
formacij. ljubljana, inštitut za kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti
2009, 95 s.

kanduč, Z. (ur.): Žrtve, viktimizacije in viktimološke perspek-
tive. ljubljana, inštitut za kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti
2002, 245 s.

kos, a.: Proces odkrivanja pojava in ukrepanja ob pojavu
trpinčenja otroka. V: trpinčeni otrok. ljubljana, inštitut za
kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti 1988, s. 17-25.

Pavlovič, Z.: experiencing and reporting crime: ljubljana (slo-
venia) 1992-1997. 9th International Symposium on Victimolo-
gy, august 26-29, 1997, amsterdam. the Hague, netherlands
official abstract book 1997, s. 80.

Pavlovič, Z.: Mednarodna anketa o viktimizaciji - ljubljana
1992. Revija za kriminalistiko in kriminologijo Ljubljana 44
(1993) 2, s. 129-138.

Pavlovič, Z. et al.: slabo ravnanje z otroki v sloveniji : opažanje
in obravnavanje. ljubljana, inštitut za kriminologijo pri Pravni
fakulteti 1997, 158 s.

Pečar, J.: neprijavljena konvencionalna kriminaliteta zoper
posameznika. Revija za kriminalistiko in kriminologijo, lju-
bljana 33 (1982) 2, s. 118-129.

Pečar, J.; Maver, D.; Zobec, Ž.: tatvine v samopostrežnih
prodajalnah. ljubljana, Center za samoupravno normativno
dejavnost 1981, 269 s.

Petrovec, D.: kult žrtve. ljubljana, GV Založba 2005, 99 s.
Šelih, a. et al.: nekateri vidiki trpinčenja otrok: pravno,

medicinsko in socialno-skrbstveno obravnavanje. ljubljana,
inštitut za kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti 1985, 180 s.
(Raziskava št. 72)

Šelih, a.: kriminaliteta telesnih poškodb na območju občine
slovenska bistrica. ljubljana, inštitut za kriminologijo pri
Pravni fakulteti 1963, 216 s. (Raziskava št. 10)

Šelih, a.: Viktimologija in njena vloga v boju zoper kriminalite-
to. Revija za kriminalistiko in kriminologijo, ljubljana 18 (1967)
1, s. 37-42.

Uderman, b. et al.: Uboji na slovenskem. ljubljana, inštitut za
kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti 1974, 519 s. (Raziskava št. 37)

Vodopivec, k.: Povračilo škode žrtvam kaznivih dejanj. Revija
za kriminalistiko in kriminologijo, ljubljana 28 (1977) 4, s. 241-
257.

Zaviršek, D.: Pictures and silences: memories of sexual abuse of
disabled people. International journal of social welf

Page 12

12 criminology in EUroPE • ���� | �

cOrrecTiON
In the printed copy of the article An Examination of International or Comparative Studies Under the Aegis of the
ESC by alida Merlo and bitna kim (issue 3/2011), regrettably, some mistakes found their way into the final,
published versions of the tables, for which we would like to apologize. Hereby we publish the corrected tables.

Table 1-1. international/comparative nature of esc presentation by years, N = 3,786a

Table 1-2. international/comparative nature of eJc Publications by years, N = 171a

2001

2002

2003

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Total

7
2.9%

17
4.4%

14
5.5%

14
3.9%

14
3.6%

29
5.2%

25
4.5%

16
3.0%

12
2.3%
148
4.1%

216
88.5%

293
75.7%

201
79.1%
298

83.7%
322

82.6%
444

79.9%
459

83.0%
447

84.5%
440

85.1%
3,120

86.2%

11
4.5%

46
11.9%

23
9.1%
32

9.0%
37

9.5%
55

9.9%
55

9.9%
46

8.7%
42

8.1%
347

9.6%

244
100.0%

387
100.0%

254
100.0%

356
100.0%

390
100.0%

556
100.0%

553
100.0%

529
100.0%

517
100.0%
3,618
100.0%

europe-affiliated & eu-
rope studied

non-europe-based, non-
comparative TotalComparativeYear

Nature of presentations

Th
e

co
m

pa
ra

tiv
e/

in
te

rn
at

io
na

l n
at

ur
e

of
16

8
(4

.4
%

) c
as

es
c

ou
ld

n
ot

b
e

de
te

rm
in

ed
.

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Total

0
0.0%

1
4.5%

1
5.3%

1
0.5%

2
9.5%

1
3.8%

2
6.5%

8
4.7%

19
95.0%

20
90.9%

17
89.5%

19
95.0%

19
90.5%

24
92.3%

29
93.5%

159
93.0%

1
0.5%

1
4.5%

1
5.3%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

1
3.8%

0
0.0%

4
2.3%

20
100.0%

22
100.0%

19
100.0%

20
100.0%

21
100.0%

26
100.0%

31
100.0%

171
100.0%

europe-affiliated & eu-
rope studied

non-europe-based, non-
comparative TotalComparativeYear

Nature of presentations

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