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TitleM. H. Segal - A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew 1980
File Size16.5 MB
Total Pages292
Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
	Cover
	Title Page
	Preface
	Contents
	Abbreviations
	Literature
	Addenda
Introduction
Part I. Phonology and Orthography
	I. Evidence for Pronunciation
		(a) External
		(b) Internal
	II. The Vowels
		1. Vowel Changes
		2. The Spelling of Vowels
	III. The Consonants
		1. The Gutturals
		2. The Palatals
		3. The Dentals
		4. The Labials
		5. The Sibilants
		6. The Sonants
		7. Semi-vowels
		8. The Letters ת פ כ ד ג ב
		9. Other Consonantal Changes
Part II. Morphology
	I. The Pronoun
		1. The Personal Pronoun
		2. The Demonstrative Pronoun
		3. The Relative Pronoun
		4. The Possessive Pronoun
		5. The Interrogative Pronoun
	II. The Verb
		A. General Survey
			1. Lexical
				(A) BH Verbs not found in MH
				(B) MH Verbs not found in BH
				(C) BH Verbs with a different usage in MH
			2. Grammatical
				(A) BH stems not found in MH
				(B) MH stems not found in BH
		B. The Stems
			1. The Simple Stem
			2. The Intensive Stem
			3. The Causative Stem
		C. The Tenses
			(1) Guttural Verbs
			(2) Verbs פ״א
			(3) Verbs פ״י
			(4) Verbs פ״נ
			(5) Verbs ע״ו ע״י
			(6) Verbs ע״ע
			(7) Verbs ל״א
			(8) Verbs ל״ה
			(9) Verbs with Pronominal Suffixes
	III. The Noun
		1. General Survey
		2. Formation of Nouns
			(1) Nouns derived from the Simple Stem
			(2) Nouns derived from the Intensive Stem
			(3) Nouns formed by Reduplication
			(4) Nouns formed by means of Prefixes
			(5) Nouns formed by means of Suffixes
			(6) Formation by Sound-insertion
			(7) Formation of Nouns from Biblical Expressions
			(8) Diminutives
		3. Formation of the Feminine
		4. The Formation of the Plural
			(1) Masculine Nouns
			(2) Feminine Nouns
			(3) Foreign Nouns
		5. The Dual
	IV. Particles
		1. Adverbs
			(1) Adverbs of Place
			(2) Adverbs of Time
			(3) Adverbs of Manner
		2. Prepositions
		3. Conjunctions
		4. Interjections
Part III. Syntax
	I. The Verb
		1. Tenses and Moods
			(1) The Perfect
			(2) The Imperfect
			(3) The Participle
			(4) The Infinitive
		2. Government of the Verb
			(1) Subordination of the Noun to the Verb as Accusative
			(2) Subordination of the Noun to the Verb by means of Prepositions
			(3) Co-ordination of a Verb to another Verb as Auxiliary
	II. The Noun
		1. Determination of the Gender
		2. The Use of the Article
		3. The Expression of the Genitive
			(1) The Construct State
			(2) Simple Circumlocution of the Genitive
			(3) Circumlocution of the Genitive with Anticipation
		4. Comparison of Adjectives
		5. Numerals
			(1) Cardinals
			(2) Ordinals
			(3) Distributives
			(4) Fractions
	III. The Pronoun
		1. The Personal Pronoun
		2. The Possessive Pronoun
		3. The Demonstrative Pronoun
		4. The Interrogative Pronoun
		5. The Relative Pronoun. The use of    שֶׁ־
		6. Reflexive and Reciprocal
		7. Indefinite
	IV. Sentences and Clauses
		1. The Nominative Absolute
		2. Agreement between Subject and Predicate
		3. Sentences expressing an Oath or a Vow
		4. Interrogative Sentences
		5. Desiderative Sentences
		6. Negative Sentences
		7. Relative Clauses
		8. Circumstantial Clauses
		9. Causal Clauses
		10. Conditional Sentences
		11. Concessive Clauses
		12. Comparative Clauses
		13. Disjunctive Clauses
		14. Adversative, Exceptive, and Restrictive Clauses
		15. Temporal Clauses
		16. Final Clauses
		17. Consecutive Clauses
Index of Biblical Passages
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

M. H. SEGAL

A Grammar of

Mishnaic
He brew

CLARENDON PRESS

Page 2

A G R A M M A R O F

MISHNAIC HEBREW

Page 146

F O R M A T I O N O F N O U N S 103

derived from B H , e .g . *1U3 honour, Ab . ii. 10; 0\b\^ peace, ib.
i. 12 ; ^ ^ 1 3 great, ib. vi. 5 ; holy, ib. v. 4 ; " i^ n o pure,
Kel. xii. 2.

2 2 8 . (3) Ga//7: n n x lath, *Er. i. 3 ; a n t e web. Sab. xiii. i ;
dish, Yo. ii. 5 ; trench, Kil. v. 3 ; a fair, 'AZ 13 a ;

vfDH ga the r ing ; *»̂ t?T p run ing ; B ^ i n ploughing, Sifra 105 b , c, d ;
p^DO olive gathering, Ha l . iii. 9 ; '̂ N'lJ careful, Ab. i. 9 ; 3 ^ ? n
beloved, ib. ii. 1 0 ; necessary, Sab. ii. 7 ; i>T. accustomed,
Yo. i. 3 ; P l " ^ : ^p3 experienced, San. vii. 2; ^ p j clean, t. T o h .
iii. 8.

T h e Fem. form (yfild is exceedingly common in M H as a
aciionis for the Qal, taking the place of the old B H construct

infinitive. T h e form is also found in B H with the same signi-
ficance, both in early and in late texts. Thus , rfp^lK' Jud. v. 16 ;
n b ^ ? K I Kings xix. 8 ; Psa. xix. 1 3 ; n o ^ n ? ^ 2 Chron.
xxx. 7 ; n ^ ? ^ Qoh. xii. 1 2 ; perhaps also n n ^ ^ B filing, i Sam.
xiii. 21 . In l ^ y : H D ^ p Lam. iii. 63, and in a derived concrete
sense : n b ^ i ) 0 Deut . xxiii. 26 ; H K ^ a entry, Ezek. viii. 5. I t is also
found in Si rach: H ^ ^ i a xxxviii. 1 6 ; H j y K ^ ib. 2 5 ; H T p K ' ib. .26.
T h e form is used in Ethiopic in exactly the same way as in M H ,
cf. Dillmann, Eth, Gr., § 1 2 4 ; Barth, Nominalbildung, p . 137.
In Aram., however, it occurs only occasionally in Jewish dialects,^
in which it is most probably borrowed from M H . T h e fact that
in earlier B H it occurs only in the Song of Deborah and in the
story of Elijah may, perhaps, tend to show that it was originally
a Nor thern dialectal form, which was received into the literary
language only after it had established itself in the spoken language.
From the latter it may have descended into M H .

Concrete nouns in this form are comparatively few in M H , as
compared with the extremely numerous examples of abstract
nouns of a verbal nature. Th i s seems to show that the concrete

' Cf. Dalman, p. 158, 5 and foot-note.

Page 147

104 M O R P H O L O G Y

significance is only secondary, and that it was derived from the

original abstract mean ing ; cf. HK^a, in B H , cited above.
Exx . of concrete n o u n s : n a ^ n n piece, Hul . vii. 5 ; n a n a bundle,

BM ii. I ; nŜ ?ip parched ear of corn, Ma'a. iv. 5 ; nn^^ cord,
Kil. ix. 9 ; n n n o bag, Kel. viii. 3 ; n y D j ; loop. Res. 11 a;* n b ^ n ?

wick, Sab. ii. i ; n m j ? = n m j ? ! ) handle, Kel. xvi. 4.

y ^ y : •''3''?n festival sacrifice. Hag . i. 2 ; n ^ f ^ n intervening object,
B Q 82 a ; HB̂ M basket. So. ii. i . n'b : n;a3 leaf, 'AZ iii. 8 ; njtJ-)
plaster, 'Er. x. 13.

Abstracts {nomina actionis) can be formed at will from every

verb. E x x . : nb^afe< eating, MS i. 7 ; n j j n a searching, P^s. i. i ;

H N ' ^ D a quaflSng, Sab. viii. i ; n p n " ! treading, S^bi. v. 2 ; nf^T\
inqui ry ; HTpn investigation, San. iv. i , 5 ; n a ^ O D laying on of

h a n d s ; nSf^Pip taking of a handful; n g ^ b l D pinching bird's head,
Qid. i. 8 ; n y ^ n - j washing, Yo. iii. i ; n p ^ n ? ^ slaying, ib. i. 7 ; H K n i ?
reading, B^r. i. i ; n n ^ j ? ( = n n ^ i ? i ) ) taking, Sifra 45 c ; Qid. 2 a ;

going out. Sab. i. i ; H T b = n r b ; birth, K^t. iv. 3.
I ^ ' y : n N ^ a coming, P^s. ix. 4 ; daubing, N^g. xii. 6 ; HB̂ ^S

kneading, M«n. v. 2 ; nn^lD death, Yo. viii. 8 ; n a ^ p anointing, Sab.
ix. 4 (L n a ' ^ D ^ : so elsewhere, e.g. Yo . viii. i ) .

mingling, M®n. vi. 3 ; H B ^ B n cleansing the head, MS

ii. 3 ; n r i ^ n a crumbling, M«n. vi. 4 ; n g ^ j ? " ] spitting, B®r. ix. 5.
rfb: •"IJ?^ baking, M«n. v. 2 ; n j n * ^ pushing, Yo. vi. 6 ; n j " ) a

digging, B Q V. 6 ; n j S ^ j ; going up, S^q. viii. 2; n j i > ^ roasting, Res.
vi. I ; n j a n increasing; H J I B fruitfulness, Y^b. vi. 7 ; H j n ^ drinking,

Yo. viii. I .

A number of nouns add the abstract suffix r i ^ — (cf. below, § 272)
to strengthen the abstract significance, e.g. H^D^fc^ tenancy. Pea
V. 5 ; n^S^DSl doing, ib. i. i ; W K ' n B separation, Ab . iii. 1 3 ; T\\p>nf
silence, G i t iv. 8, &c.

2 2 9 . (r) QafaL T o this form belong the Passive Participles

Qal, and verbal adjectives like "̂ ôn weighty, strict, Kel. i. 4 ;

Page 291

248 I N D E X O F B I B L I C A L P A S S A G E S

N E H F M I A H .

vi. 19
ix. 3

xiii. 5
1 3

I C H R O N I C L E S .
V. 26

xiii. 1 3
xxiii. 6
xxix. 17

2 C H R O N I C L E S .

viii. 5
xxv. 5

10
xxviii. 23

xxx. 7
10

xxxv. 13

S I R A C H .

V . 25
156 xi. 3 .
343 3 1
343 xiv. 14

xvi. 35
xxx. 3

1 3



390 19
43 n. xxxii. I

390 3
137 xxxv. 10

xxx\iii. 16

11 :


377 n.
390 xl. 3
390 39

83 xli. 17
2 3 8 38
343 xliv. 30
271 n. li. 34 .

149

341
352
181
.357
i2on.
341
252

338
238
328
3981).
1940.
241
252
341
341

72

Page 292

This little book has been written with a twofold object:
first, to provide students of early Rabbinic literature with a
fairly complete grammar of the dialect of that literature;
and, secondly, to demonstrate the organic connection of
this Mishnaic dialect with Biblical Hebrew, and i t s relative
independence of contemporary Aramaic at least in the field
of grammar.

The present paperback edition replaces the hardback
edition first published in 1927. The text i s unchanged.

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
£4.95 net in UK ISBN 0 19 815454 2

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