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TitleKOC Excavation Procedure
Tags Risk Pipeline Transport Excavation (Archaeology) Personal Protective Equipment
File Size425.2 KB
Total Pages11
Document Text Contents
Page 1

KOC.SA.026 - Excavation Procedure
Page 1 of 11

Control Tier: 3 Revision Date: 31
May 2011

Uncontrolled Copy If Printed

Excavation Procedure

Document Number: KOC.SA.026

Approver: (Technical) Manager MP(I) Author: TL Safety


Manager HSE

TL Standard

Scope: All KOC Directorates Control Tier: Tier 3

Issue Date: 26
August 2008 Issuing Group: HSE Group

Revision / Review Date: 31
May 2011 Next Review Date: 30

May 2014

1.0 Purpose / Scope

The purpose of this procedure is to establish the precautions and conditions considered

necessary for safety of the personnel involved in excavation work as well as integrity of

above / underground services &/or facilities where such excavation work shall be carried

out. The procedure is also aimed to define the roles & responsibilities of personnel

associated with requesting, approving and carrying out excavation in areas under KOC


The procedure is applicable to all activities & facilities where excavation is carried out for

maintenance, construction or inspection need. It is to note that requirement of work

permit for excavat

2.0 Definitions

Excavation: Excavation is a man made cut, cavity, trench or depression in an earth

surface formed by earth removal.

Manual Excavation: The excavation without using any powered equipment or

excavating machinery such as backhoe, loader, Jack Hammer etc.

Mechanical Excavation: The excavation work using powered equipment or excavating

machinery such backhoe, loader, Jack Hammer etc.

Excavation Notification: Excavation Notification is a document to notify concerned

authorities, who have responsibility and jurisdiction for safety & integrity of aboveground

and / or underground services existing at the proposed site of excavation.

Metal Detector: It is a device to screen the excavation area to mitigate the risk of

damaging unknown pipelines, cables and utilities.

Cave - ins: It is collapse of the trench side walls due to weight of the adjacent soil. A

cave in can drop several cubic meters of soils on trench worker.

Sloping: Sloping is angling the sides of an excavation to prevent cave ins.

Benching: It is also one of the measures to prevent cave ins by cutting trench

sidewalls to form one or more steps.

Shoring: Shoring involves the use of engineering structures (such as cross braces,

vertical & / or horizontal rail, polling boards etc) to support a trench side walls.

Backfilling: It is an activity to fill-in (with soil) a trench that is no longer needed and

returning the area around its original condition.

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KOC.SA.026 - Excavation Procedure
Page 2 of 11

Control Tier: 3 Revision Date: 31
May 2011

Uncontrolled Copy If Printed

3.0 General Requirements

KOC HSEMS Element HSE – 03 - 1

4.0 Key Responsibilities

4.1 Permit Applicant / Initiator of Excavation Notification:

Initiate Excavation Notification informing concerned authorities, who have

responsibility and jurisdiction for safety & integrity of aboveground and / or underground

services existing at the proposed site of excavation.

Enclose drawings & sketches (with the Excavation Notification) marking the proposed
site of excavation.

Identify the above / under ground services (such as pipelines, cables, sewage, flume,
tunnel etc) before excavating the area without damage to those services.

Ensure risk assessment and mitigation of potential hazards associated with

proposed excavation work.

Conduct Job Safety Analysis prior to applying the appropriate work permit (Cold Work
Permit for Manual Excavation and Hot Work Permit for Mechanical Excavation) for carrying
out excavation work.

4.2 Asset Owners for Above / Underground Services

The respective asset owner for aboveground / underground services will indicate (in
the Excavation Notification); the required precautionary measures to be taken
preventing any damage to those services at the proposed site of excavation.

4.3 Permit Issuer

Ensure safety & integrity of the worksite prior to issuance of appropriate permits (Cold
Work Permit for Manual Excavation and Hot Work Permit for Mechanical Excavation) for
safe work execution.

4.4 Worksite Supervisor

Must not excavate without a valid excavation notification & authorized work permit.

Ensure safety & suitability of the equipment & materials to be used for excavation.

Conduct Tool Box Talk briefing the workers on potential hazards and precautionary

measures to be taken during excavation activities.

Verify the existence of above / underground services before excavating the area.

Barricade the site of excavation along with the warning notice, signs and flashing

lights to alert the people approaching worksite.

Check the excavation safeguards (such as shoring, sloping & supporting system) daily
before starting the job & after every rain storm or other hazardous occurrence.

Fill the excavation checklist (enclosed at Appendix - 1) ensuring safety & integrity of the

4.6 Asset / Directorate HSE Teams

Conduct periodical inspection of excavation site to assure the procedural


Advise the Permit Applicant & Permit Issuer for corrective measures in case

discrepancy is noticed at the site of excavation.

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KOC.SA.026 - Excavation Procedure
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Control Tier: 3 Revision Date: 31
May 2011

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f) Excavations adjacent to buildings or other obstructions may require temporary support,

and accordingly the relevant safety instruction must be stated in the Excavation

Notification before taking up excavation activity.

g) For any excavation deeper than 1m, suitable ladder must be positioned projecting a

minimum of 1 metre above the edge of the excavations. Ladders shall be provided

every 7.5 meters (25 feet) of lateral travel in the trench. Ladders shall be securely

supported at the bottom as well as at the top.

h) Any walkway across trench shall have scaffold type platform with handrails to protect

personnel from falling into it.

i) All trenches shall have barrier (such as fixed guardrails) and warning notices clearly
displayed. Flashing lights are mandatory during poor visibility.

j) Excavated material shall be placed at a distance not less than 1m from the edge of

the excavation for depth up to 1.2 meter. Accordingly placement of excavated

material shall be increased proportion to the depth of excavation.

k) Heavy equipment, material or excavating machinery shall be kept clear from the

excavation area by at least 3 metres away.

l) The access to plant, equipment and emergency services must not be obstructed by the


m) The trenches shall not be left uncovered in the plant area and must be backfilled

immediately on completion of work.

n) No mechanical excavation is allowed inside the existing KOC facilities (Gathering
Center, Booster Station etc.)

o) Personnel carrying out excavation work must use PPE in line with the requirements of


p) Employees exposed to public vehicular traffic shall be provided with, and shall wear;

warning vests or other suitable garments marked with or made of reflectorized or high-

visibility material.

5.5 Inspection of Trenches

To identify and control hazards a competent person must inspect all parts of a trench and

its safeguards everyday in consideration to following issues:

a) All materials to be used in shoring & support must be inspected for its suitability

b) The timbering and shoring must be checked for any strain or slackness before

commencement of daily work. Moreover timbering and shoring must also be checked

carefully after heavy rains and or exposure to high temperature.

c) All excavations must be carefully inspected following heavy rains, collapse of trenches

or fall of equipment or materials inside.

d) If an unsafe condition is found or suspected, work in trenches must stop until the

necessary precautions have been taken to control the hazards.

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KOC.SA.026 - Excavation Procedure
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Control Tier: 3 Revision Date: 31
May 2011

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5.6 Excavation Process:

5.6.1 Excavation in Good Soil

a) For excavations in good soil, shoring is not usually required, provided the excavations

depth does not exceed more than one metre

b) If the surface area permits, greater depth can be made by sloping the side down to an

angle of 45°.

c) If surface area is limited and needed excavation depth is more than one metre, then

polling boards must be placed approximately two metres apart with horizontal brace

(support), whereas horizontal brace should not be more than one metre apart.

d) Where a long trench is being made, the mechanical digging must be limited to

approximately two metres ahead of shoring to give a protected position.

5.6.2 Excavation in Medium Soil

a) If the depth of the excavation exceeds one metre, shoring must be used. The polling

boards should be placed not more than 750mm (30") apart facing the wall, whereas

horizontal brace should not be more than one metre apart.

b) Extra polling boards should be inserted across if the condition of the ground


5.6.3 Excavation in Loose Sand or Poor Soil Condition

If excavations are to be made in loose sand or poor soil condition, then close sheeting or

continued series of polling boards shall be used.

The polling board & walling shall have a minimum cross-section as mentioned hereunder:

Polling board = 200mm x 50mm, (8" x 2")

Walling = 150mm x 50mm (6" x 2")

Walling = 150mm x 50mm (6" x 2")

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KOC.SA.026 - Excavation Procedure
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Control Tier: 3 Revision Date: 31
May 2011

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Appendix -1
Excavation Checklist

Location: Permit No. .


Description of Checks & Measures Yes No

Applicable Remarks
Required & to be

1 The proposed area of excavation is EOD cleared and certificate obtained

The proposed location checked with appropriate detectors for any underground

3 Slit trenching to locate any underground services

4 Only manual excavation will be carried out

5 Excavation to be carried out by mechanical means only

6 Excavation to be carried out both utilizing manual & mechanical means.

7 Protection provided to control source of ignition for equipment to be used in hazardous area.

8 Earthmoving & other mechanical equipment are fixed with approved spark arrestor

9 Electrical wiring, termination joints & battery terminals of excavating machinery are safe.

10 Excavation area to be isolated partially / completely from other adjacent facilities.

Temporary supports are required for existing underground services to protect from
exposure due to excavation.

12 Area of excavation requires continuous Gas (flammable & toxic) monitoring.

13 Fire protection (portable or fixed) system required.

14 Excavation area is provided with safe access

Area of excavation properly barricaded and danger signs (e.g. warning tape, reflective
cone, safe cross over with handrail, flashing light etc.) are provided.

Area of excavation / trenches is to be protected against possible ingress of rainwater /
spilled liquid from adjacent facilities.

Excavation will not lead to water / liquid ingress through the trench into adjacent

18 The site of disposal for excess excavated material is determined

19 Banksman / Signalman for excavating machinery operator is required.

20 Continuous onsite supervision required during excavation work.

21 Safe detour / by-pass alongwith warning signs are provided as per requirement.

22 Excavated area backfilled, compacted and made as original.

Name of Worksite Supervisor Designation: Id. No
Controlling Team: Signature: Date

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KOC.SA.026 - Excavation Procedure
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Control Tier: 3 Revision Date: 31
May 2011

Uncontrolled Copy If Printed

Appendix -2 Excavation Flowchart



Need for Excavation Work
(The Initiator to raise the Excavation Notification)

Are potential hazards identified & mitigated?
(In association with Permit Applicant & Issuer)

Worksite Supervisor completes Excavation Checklist

Work Permit authorized by Issuer

Backfill the trenches safely & return
the area to original condition

Site condition verified &
Permit Closed

Endorsement of Excavation Notification
(By all concerned Teams / Groups)

Take remaining


Excavation work carried out safely.

Apply for Appropriate Work Permit
(By Permit Applicant)

Work is complete &
trenches no more needed

Is endorsement


Address the



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