Download JJ308 REPORT Layout and Piping of the Steam Power Plant System PDF

TitleJJ308 REPORT Layout and Piping of the Steam Power Plant System
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_plant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_propulsion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbo-electric
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_marine_propulsion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heating
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hertz
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utility_frequency
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-phase
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-phase
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_utility
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co-generation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil-fuel_power_plant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil-fuel_power_plant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_oil
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combined_cycle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_heat
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flue-gas_emissions_from_fossil-fuel_combustion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incineration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incineration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_thermal_electric
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_power
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_power_plant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/District_heating
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil_fuel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rankine_cycle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condensation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_turbine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/prime_mover

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Combined heat and power plants (CH&P plants), often called co-generation plants,

produce both electric power and heat for process heat or space heating. Steam and

hot water lose energy when piped over substantial distance, so carrying heat energy

by steam or hot water is often only worthwhile within a local area, such as a ship,

industrial plant, or district heating of nearby buildings.

5.0 DISCUSSION

5.1 State all the components used in steam power

plant and give the explanation of theirs uses.

1. Boiler. A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.
The fluid does not necessarily boil. The heated or vaporized fluid exits
the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.

2. Steam turbine. A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal

energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a

rotating output shaft. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is
particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator. The steam

turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement

in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the

expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal

reversible expansion process.



3. Cooling tower. A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which

extracts waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water

stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use

the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working

fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit

dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near

the dry-bulb air temperature.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry-bulb_temperature
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wet-bulb_temperature
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_heat
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamic_efficiency
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_engine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotational_motion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work_(physics)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_vessel
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/District_heating
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combined_heat_and_power_plant

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4.Water pump. A water pump is a specific type of pump used to

pump feedwater into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied

or returning condensate produced as a result of the condensation of the

steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure

units that take suction from a condensate return system and can be of

the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type.

5. Surface condenser. A surface condenser is a commonly used term for a

water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the

exhaust steam from asteam turbine in thermal power stations.[1][2]

[3] These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from its

gaseous to its liquid state at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.



5.2 Briefly explain the work cycle of the steam power plant

Rankine cycle. Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the
performance of steam turbine systems. The Rankine cycle is an

idealizedthermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into

mechanical work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which

usually uses water as the working fluid.

There are four processes in rankine cycle

Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to

high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage, the pump requires little input

energy.

Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at

constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour.

The input energy required can be easily calculated using mollier diagram or h-s

chart or enthalpy-entropy chart also known as steam tables.

Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine, generating

power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapour, and some

condensation may occur. The output in this process can be easily calculated

using the Enthalpy-entropy chart or the steam tables.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpy-entropy_chart
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_table
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enthalpy-entropy_chart
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-s_chart
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-s_chart
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mollier_diagram
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_fluid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_engine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamic_cycle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchangers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condenser_(heat_transfer)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser#cite_note-Elliott-3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser#cite_note-Babcock-2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser#cite_note-Babcock-2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser#cite_note-1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_power_station
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam_turbine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steam
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pump
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condensation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler_(steam_generator)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feedwater
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pump

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Process 4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at

a constant pressure to become a saturated liquid.

5.3 What are advantages of using steam as a medium In generating
power.

Steam offers the following advantages:

1)Steam can be distributed throughout a heating
system with little change in temperature

2)Steam flows through the system unaided by
external energy sources such as pumps.Because of
its low density, steam can be used in tall buildings
where water systems create excessive pressure.

3)Steam is pressure-temperature dependent;
therefore, the system temperature can be
controlled by varying either steam pressure or
temperature.

4)Steam components can be repaired or replaced by
closing the steam supply, without the difficulties
associated with draining and refilling a water
system.

5.4 Briefly explain about the work principles of steam
turbine
Steam turbine is one of machine types that use a method of external
combustion engine. The working principle of steam turbine as follows:

I. Steam enters into the turbine through a nozzle. In the nozzle,
heat energy from steam is converted into kinetic energy and the
steam is expanding. Steam pressure at the exit of nozzle is
smaller when compared with at the time of enter into nozzle,
but otherwise the velocity of steam out from nozzle is greater
than at the time of enter into the nozzle.

II. The steam gushing out of the nozzle is directed to the turbine
blades with arches shaped and fitted around the wheel turbines.

http://steamofboiler.blogspot.com/2011/08/steam-turbine-generator.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiling_point
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser

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Steam flowing through gaps between the turbine blades is
deflected towards following the curve of the turbine blades. The
changes in steam velocity raise the force that encourages and
then rotate the turbine wheel and shaft.

III. If the steam still has velocity when it leaves the turbine blades
means that only some of the kinetic energy of steam is taken by
the turbine blades which are running. More than one line of blade
motion is installed to utilize the remaining kinetic energy when
steam leaves the turbine blades.

IV. Before entering the second line of blade motion, so between the
first row and second row blades motion is mounted one line fixed
blade (blade guide) that allows you to change the direction of
the steam velocity, so steam can enter the second line of blade
motion in the right direction.

V. The velocity of steam when it leaves the last blade motion should
be made as small as possible, so that the available kinetic energy
can be utilized as much as possible. Thus the steam turbine
efficiency is higher because of energy loss is relatively small.

V.5 Give the function of the cooling tower in cooling the tower in the
condenser.

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which extracts waste heat to

the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.

Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and

cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed

circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-

bulb air temperature.

CONCLUSION

A thermal power plant uses steam to spin turbines,
which in turn feed electric generators. Most power plants
in the world use thermal energy to operate. A thermal

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry-bulb_temperature
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry-bulb_temperature
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wet-bulb_temperature
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_heat

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