Download GUÍA GRAMÁTICA HSK1 PDF

TitleGUÍA GRAMÁTICA HSK1
TagsEnglish Language Chinese Language Adverb Noun Adjective
File Size534.2 KB
Total Pages47
Table of Contents
                            Negation of "you" with "mei"
	The Short Form of 没有 is 没
The "all" adverb "dou"
	The adverb 都 (dōu) is used to express "all" in Chinese. It's common to use 都 (dōu) in a variety of sentences where it would seem unnecessary in English. 都 for "all"
		Structure
		Examples
	都 for "both"
		Structure
		Examples
The "also" adverb "ye"
	也 with Verb Phrases
		Structure
		Examples
		A Note on the Negative Form
	也 with Adjectives
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "me too" with 也
		Structure
		Examples
Expressing "and" with "he"
	Structure
	Examples
Offering choices with "haishi"
	还是 (háishì) is used in Chinese to provide options in a question. This is equivalent to one of our uses of "or" in English. Simplest Form
		Structure
		Examples
	Full Sentence Form
		Structure
		Examples
Age with "sui"
	Structure
		Examples
Measure word "ge"
	General Structure
		Structure
		Examples
	Omitting the number
		Structure
		Examples
Structure of dates
	Structure
	Examples
Structure of days of the week
	Structure
	Examples
	Other words for "week"
Structure of numbers
	One to one hundred
		Structure for the first ten
		Structure for teens
		Structure for tens
		Examples
	After one hundred
		Dealing with Zeroes
		Examples
		For numbers 110 and greater
		Examples
	After one thousand
		Examples
	10,000 and beyond
Structure of times (basic)
	On the hour
		Structure
		Examples
	Half hours
		Structure
		Examples
Expressing close possession without "de"
	Structure
	Examples
Expressing possession with "de"
	Structure
	Examples
Questions with "ne"
	General Questions with 呢
		Structure
		Examples
	Asking "Where" with 呢
		Structure
		Examples
Suggestions with "ba"
	Structure
	Examples
Expressing existence in a place with "zai"
	Structure
	Examples
Expressing existence with "you"
	Structure
	Examples
Expressing possession with "you"
	Structure
	Examples
	Negating 有
Using the verb "jiao"
	Structure
	Examples
Using the verb "qu"
	去 with just a Place
		Structure
		Examples
	去 with a Verb
		Structure
		Examples
Using the verb "xing"
	Giving One's Surname
		Structure
		Examples
	Asking Someone's Surname
Expressing "be going to" with "yao"
	Structure
	Examples
Expressing a learned skill with "hui"
	Structure
	Examples
	Negating 会 sentences
		Structure
		Examples
Expressing ability or possibility with "neng"
	Expressing Ability
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing Possibility
		Structure
		Examples
	Other usages
		Examples
Expressing permission with "keyi"
	Basic Usage
		Structure
		Examples
	Negating 可以 sentences
		Structure
		Examples
Wanting to do something with "yao"
	Structure
	Examples
	要 and 想
		Examples
How to do something with "zenme"
	The Basic "How to Verb" Something
		Structure
		Examples
	Topic First
		Structure
		Examples
Negation of past actions with "meiyou"
	Structure
	Examples
	Go easy on the 了 (le)
Negative commands with "buyao"
	Structure
	Examples
Standard negation with "bu"
	Negating Verbs
		Structure
		Examples
	Negating Adjectives
		Structure
		Examples
Basic sentence order
	Subject-predicate
		Structure
		Examples
	Subject-verb-object
		Structure
		Examples
	When it all falls apart
Connecting nouns with "shi"
	Basic Sentence
		Structure
		Examples
	Other Uses of 是
		Examples
Expressing "excessively" with "tai"
	Structure
	Examples
Simple "noun + adjective" sentences
	Structure
	Examples
	很 (hěn), what's your problem?!
Affirmative-negative question
	Verb-Not-Verb
		Structure
		Examples
	Verb-Not-Verb with an Object
		Structure
		Examples
	Adjective-Not-Adjective
		Structure
		Examples
	Two-character verbs or adjectives in positive-negative questions
		Structure
		Examples
	有 in positive-negative questions
		Structure
		Examples
Placement of question words
	Overview
		Common question words list
		Rules
	Expressing "what" with 什么 (shénme)
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "where" with 哪里 (nǎli) / 哪儿 (nǎr)
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "which" with 哪个
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "who" with 谁 (shéi)
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "when" with 什么时候 (shénme shíhou)
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "why" with 为什么 (wèishénme)
		Structure
		Examples
	Expressing "how" with 怎么 (zěnme)
		Structure
		Examples
Tag questions with "bu"
	Structure
	Examples
Tag questions with "ma"
	Structure
	Examples
Yes-no questions with "ma"
	Basic Usage
		Structure
		Examples
	More Advanced Usage
"Er" and "liang"
	Uses of 二 (èr)
		二 is used in numbers
		Examples
	Uses of 两 (liǎng)
		两 is used with measure words
		Examples
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

CHINESE GRAMMAR FOR HSK1

Negation of "you" with "mei"
The verb 有 (yǒu) is negated differently from ordinary verbs. Rather than placing 不 (bù) before
it as with other verbs, you must use 没 (méi) to negate the verb 有 (yǒu). Nearly all verbs can
be negated with 不 (bù). The verb 有 (yǒu) is an exception, and must be negated with 没 (méi).

 我 没 有 问题。 Wǒ méi yǒu wènti. I don't have any questions.

 我们 现在 没 有 钱。Wǒmen xiànzài méi yǒu qián. We don't have money now.

 他 没 有 工作 吗? Tā méi yǒu gōngzuò ma? Does he not have a job?

 他们 没 有 爸爸妈妈。 Tāmen méi yǒu bàba māma. They don't have parents.

 我们 在 北京 没 有 房子。Wǒmen zài Běijīng méi yǒu fángzi. We don't have a house in Beijing.

 你 爸爸 没 有 手机 吗?Nǐ bàba méi yǒu shǒujī ma? Does your dad not have a cell phone?

 你们 在 上海 没 有朋友 吗?Nǐmen zài Shànghǎi méi yǒu péngyou ma? Do you not have friends in
Shanghai?

 我 的 老师 现在 没 有 男朋友。 Wǒ de lǎoshī xiànzài méi yǒu nánpéngyou. My teacher doesn't
have a boyfriend now.

 他们 都 没 有 电脑 吗?Tāmen dōu méi yǒu diànnǎo ma?Do they all not have computers?

 这 个 周末 你们 都 没 有 时间 吗?Zhè ge zhōumò nǐmen dōu méi yǒu shíjiān ma?Do you all not
have time this weekend?

The Short Form of 没有 is 没
没有 (méiyǒu) can be shortened to 没 (méi) without altering its meaning.

 我 没 钱。 Wǒ méi qián. I don't have money.

 你 没 男朋友 吗? Nǐ méi nánpéngyou ma? Do you not have a boyfriend?

 你们 没 车 吗? Nǐmen méi chē ma? Do you not have a car?

 老板 现在 没 时间。 Lǎobǎn xiànzài méi shíjiān. The boss doesn't have time right now.

 我 没 工作,我 老公 也 没 工作。 Wǒ méi gōngzuò, wǒ lǎogōng yě méi gōngzuò. I don't
have a job. Neither does my husband.

The "all" adverb "dou"

The adverb 都 (dōu) is used to express "all" in Chinese. It's common to use 都
(dōu) in a variety of sentences where it would seem unnecessary in English. 都
for "all"

https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Standard_negation_with_bu

Page 2

Structure
Subject + 都 + [Verb Phrase]

Remember that 都 (dōu) appears after the subject. A common mistake learners make is to put 都 (dōu) at the
beginning of the sentence (as "all" often appears there in English). This isn't good Chinese - make sure you
put 都 (dōu) after the subject and before the verb.

Examples

 你们 都 认识 John 吗 ?Nǐmen dōu rènshi John ma? Do you all know John?

 他们 都 在 上海 。Tāmen dōu zài Shànghǎi. They are all in Shanghai.

 明天 我们 都 可以 去 。Míngtiān wǒmen dōu kěyǐ qù. Tomorrow we all can go.

 你们 都 用 wiki 吗 ?Nǐmen dōu yòng wiki ma? Do you all use the wiki?

 我们 都 要 冰水。Wǒmen dōu yào bīngshuǐ . We all want ice water.

都 for "both"
Chinese doesn't normally use a special word for "both" like English does. It just uses 都 (dōu) as if it were
any other number greater than one. Chinese also doesn't have a special pattern like "neither / nor" for the
negative case. Just use 都 (dōu) and make the sentence negative.

Structure
Subjects + 都 + [Verb Phrase]

This pattern should look familiar.

Examples
These examples follow exactly the same form in Chinese as the ones above. The only difference is that here
we don't translate 都 (dōu) as "all" in English; we translate it as "both," and for negative cases, we translate
it as "neither."

 我们 两 个 都 爱 你 。Wǒmen liǎng gè dōu ài nǐ. The two of us both love you.

 你 爸爸 和 你 妈妈 都 是 美国人 吗? Nǐ bàba hé nǐ māma dōu shì Měiguó rén ma? Are your
father and your mother both Americans?

 我 和 我 太太 都 不 吃 肉。Wǒ hé wǒ tàitai dōu bù chī ròu. Neither my wife nor I eat meat.

 你们 个两 都 喜欢 中国 菜 吗?Nǐmen liǎng gè dōu xǐhuan Zhōngguó cài ma? Do you both
like Chinese food?

 她 和 她 老公 都 没有 工作。 Tā hé tā lǎogōng dōu méi yǒu gōngzuò. Neither she nor her
husband has a job.

The "also" adverb "ye"

The English adverb "too" or "also" is expressed in Chinese as 也 (yě). In Chinese, it always
needs to come before the verb (or adjective).

也 with Verb Phrases

Page 23

 你 姓 什么 ? Nǐ xìng shénme?What is your last name?

However, the formal way to ask has a set form:

 您 贵 姓 ?Nín guì xìng?What is your honorable surname?

Literally this means "What is your honorable surname?" Use this form to be polite when asking people their
surnames.

Expressing "be going to" with "yao"

The auxiliary verb 要 (yào) has several different meanings, and here we'll tackle the "be going to" meaning.
You'll use this when you are discussing your plans with someone.

Structure
The idea behind this usage of 要 (yào) is that someone is "planning to" or "going to" or "preparing to" do
something. It's not that they just want to, or have to, it's that they fully expect to do it. It's in their plan. This
usage of 要 (yào) typically includes a time word of some sort, which may be placed before or after the
subject.

Subj. + 要 + Verb

Examples

 我 明天 要 买 一 个 iPhone。 Wǒ míngtiān yào mǎi yī gè iPhone.I am going to buy an
iPhone tomorrow.

 你们 吗 在 要 出去 吗? Nǐmen xiànzài yào chūqù ma?Are you all going out now?

 我们 今年 要 去 美国 。 Wǒmen jīnnián yào qù Měiguó.We are planning to go to the U.S.
this year.

 他 下 个 月 要 来 中国 工作。 Tā xià gè yuè yào lái Zhōngguó gōngzuò.He is coming to
China to work next month.

 你 下 个 星期 要 去 她 家 吃 晚饭 吗? Nǐ yào qù tā jiā chī wǎnfàn ma?Are you going to her
place for dinner next week?

 这 个 星期天 你 要 做 什么?Zhè ge Xīngqītiān nǐ yào zuò shénme? What are you doing
this Sunday?

 我 晚上要 给 妈妈 打电话。 Wǒ wǎnshang yào gěi māma dǎ diànhuà. I am going to call
my mom this evening.

 下午 老师 要 来 我家。 Xiàwǔ lǎoshī yào lái wǒ jiā. The teacher is coming to my place this
afternoon.

 老板 明天 要 见 他们 吗? Lǎobǎn míngtiān yào jiàn tāmen ma? Is the boss going to meet
them tomorrow?

 下班 以后 你 要 回家 吗? Xiàbān yǐhòu nǐ yào huíjiā ma? Are you planning to go home
after getting off work?

Expressing a learned skill with "hui"

file:///var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_3/meanings
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Auxiliary_verb

Page 24

The word 会 (huì) can be used to express an ability that has been learned (a skill). In this case 会 (huì) is an
auxiliary verb.

Structure
The basic structure for 会 (huì) is:

Subj. + 会 + Verb + Obj.

This structure is the easiest way to express all kinds of skills, from languages, to sports, to skills in daily life
such as cooking, and driving.

Examples

 他 会 说 中文。Tā huì shuō Zhōngwén.He can speak Chinese.

 我 会 写 汉字。Wǒ huì xiě hànzì.I can write Chinese characters.

 你 会 做 饭 吗?Nǐ huì zuò fàn ma?Can you cook food?

 狗 会 唱 歌 吗?Gǒu huì chànggē ma?Can dogs sing?

 爸爸 会 开车。Bàba huì kāichē. Dad can drive.

Negating 会 sentences
Structure
会 (huì) sentences are negated with 不 (bù), which is inserted in front of 会 (huì):

Subj. + 不 + 会 + Verb + Obj.

Again, this is the simplest way to express the lack of a learned ability. So while "can't" is a natural
translation for "不会" (bù huì) in English, "don't know how to" is equally correct (and perhaps more
helpful).

Also, due to a tone change rule for "不" (bù), the phrase "不会" (bù huì) is actually read as "bú huì".

Examples

 我 不会 说 英文。 Wǒ bù huì shuō Yīngwén.I can't speak English.

 妈妈 不会 做 中国 菜。Māma bù huì zuò Zhōngguó cài.Mom can't cook Chinese food.

 你 不会 游泳 吗? Nǐ bù huì yóuyǒng ma?You can't swim?

 我 奶奶 不会 用 电脑。Wǒ nǎinai bù huì yòng diànnǎo.My grandmother can't use a
computer.

 你 不会 开车 吗?Nǐ bù huì kāichē ma?You can't drive a car?

Note that if we say 我不能说中文 (wǒ bù néng shuō Zhōngwén), the speaker is saying that he can't speak
Chinese for some reason other than his own ability, perhaps because speaking Chinese in English class is
forbidden.

Expressing ability or possibility with "neng"

https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Expressing_ability_or_possibility
http://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/pronunciation/Tone_change_rules
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Standard_negation_with_%22bu%22
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Auxiliary_verb

Page 46

These would be something like "Are you who are you?" and "Is this is a book?" in English, both obviously
ungrammatical. Still, if you're not careful, you may find yourself throwing a 吗 (ma) onto the end of a
question that doesn't need it. Many learners make this mistake, so don't worry if it happens every once in a
while, just catch it and remember it the next time.

More Advanced Usage
However, this doesn't mean that a sentence can't ever have a question word and 吗 (ma). If a sentence
contains verbs of understanding such as "知道 (zhīdao),了解 (liǎojié), 明白 (míngbai), 认识 (rènshi)" etc,
then "吗" (ma) can still be added at the end of the question.

This is not a necessary pattern for a beginner to know, but you may also wish to read about advanced yes-no
questions with "ma".

"Er" and "liang"

In Chinese, there are two words for "two." They are 二 (èr) and 两 (liǎng), and each is used in different
circumstances.

Uses of 二 (èr)
二 is used in numbers
The digit "2" is 二 (èr). This is used generally in numbers, when counting to ten, giving out a phone number,
and so on.

Unlike 两 (liǎng), 二 (èr) is not used to say there are "two" of something, and does not generally occur with
measure words by itself. Numbers like 十二 (12) (shí-èr) and 二十二 (22) (èrshí-èr) end with a "2" and can
still be combined with measure words. In those cases, 两 (liǎng) is not needed.

Examples
Here are some common examples of 二 (èr) in action:

 第 二 dì-èr#2; second

 第 二 个 dì-èr gèthe second one

 第 二 次 dì-èr cìthe second time

 二月 ÈryuèFebruary (the second month)

 二 号 èr hào#2; the second (of the month)

 二 号 线 èr hào xiànLine 2 (of the metro)

 二 楼 èr lóusecond floor

 二 十 èrshí20

 二 十 块 钱 èrshí kuài qián20 RMB

 二 十 二 个 人 èrshí-èr ge réntwenty-two people

https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Measure_words
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Advanced_yes-no_questions_with_%22ma%22
https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Advanced_yes-no_questions_with_%22ma%22

Page 47

https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/Measure_word

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