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TitleFundamentals of Business Process Management
Author
LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages546
Table of Contents
                            Foreword
Preface
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Acronyms
1 Introduction to Business Process Management
	1.1 Processes Everywhere
	1.2 Ingredients of a Business Process
	1.3 Origins and History of BPM
		1.3.1 The Functional Organization
		1.3.2 The Birth of Process Thinking
		1.3.3 The Rise and Fall of BPR
	1.4 The BPM Lifecycle
	1.5 Recap
	1.6 Solutions to Exercises
	1.7 Further Exercises
	1.8 Further Readings
2 Process Identification
	2.1 The Context of Process Identification
	2.2 Definition of the Process Architecture
		2.2.1 Process Categories
		2.2.2 Relationships Between Processes
		2.2.3 Reuse of Reference Models
		2.2.4 Process Landscape Model
		2.2.5 The Example of SAP's Process Architecture
	2.3 Process Selection
		2.3.1 Selection Criteria
		2.3.2 Process Performance Measures
		2.3.3 Process Portfolio
	2.4 Recap
	2.5 Solutions to Exercises
	2.6 Further Exercises
	2.7 Further Readings
3 Essential Process Modeling
	3.1 First Steps with BPMN
	3.2 Branching and Merging
		3.2.1 Exclusive Decisions
		3.2.2 Parallel Execution
		3.2.3 Inclusive Decisions
		3.2.4 Rework and Repetition
	3.3 Business Objects
	3.4 Resources
	3.5 Process Decomposition
	3.6 Process Model Reuse
	3.7 Recap
	3.8 Solutions to Exercises
	3.9 Further Exercises
	3.10 Further Readings
4 Advanced Process Modeling
	4.1 More on Rework and Repetition
		4.1.1 Parallel Repetition
		4.1.2 Uncontrolled Repetition
	4.2 Handling Events
		4.2.1 Message Events
		4.2.2 Temporal Events
		4.2.3 Racing Events
	4.3 Handling Exceptions
		4.3.1 Process Abortion
		4.3.2 Internal Exceptions
		4.3.3 External Exceptions
		4.3.4 Activity Timeouts
		4.3.5 Non-Interrupting Events and Complex Exceptions
		4.3.6 Event Sub-processes
		4.3.7 Activity Compensation
		4.3.8 Summary
	4.4 Processes and Business Rules
	4.5 Recap
	4.6 Solutions to Exercises
	4.7 Further Exercises
	4.8 Further Readings
5 Process Discovery
	5.1 The Setting of Process Discovery
		5.1.1 Process Analyst Versus Domain Expert
		5.1.2 Three Process Discovery Challenges
	5.2 Process Discovery Methods
		5.2.1 Evidence-Based Discovery
		5.2.2 Interview-Based Discovery
		5.2.3 Workshop-Based Discovery
		5.2.4 Strengths and Weaknesses
	5.3 Process Modeling Method
		5.3.1 Step 1: Identify the Process Boundaries
		5.3.2 Step 2: Identify Activities and Events
		5.3.3 Step 3: Identify Resources and Their Handoffs
		5.3.4 Step 4: Identify the Control Flow
		5.3.5 Step 5: Identify Additional Elements
		5.3.6 Summary
	5.4 Process Model Quality Assurance
		5.4.1 Syntactic Quality and Verification
		5.4.2 Semantic Quality and Validation
		5.4.3 Pragmatic Quality and Certification
		5.4.4 Modeling Guidelines and Conventions
	5.5 Recap
	5.6 Solutions to Exercises
	5.7 Further Exercises
	5.8 Further Readings
6 Qualitative Process Analysis
	6.1 Value-Added Analysis
	6.2 Waste Analysis
		6.2.1 Move
		6.2.2 Hold
		6.2.3 Overdo
	6.3 Stakeholder Analysis and Issue Documentation
		6.3.1 Stakeholder Analysis
		6.3.2 Issue Register
		6.3.3 Pareto Analysis and PICK Charts
	6.4 Root Cause Analysis
		6.4.1 Cause-Effect Diagrams
		6.4.2 Why-Why Diagrams
	6.5 Recap
	6.6 Solutions to Exercises
	6.7 Further Exercises
	6.8 Further Readings
7 Quantitative Process Analysis
	7.1 Flow Analysis
		7.1.1 Calculating Cycle Time Using Flow Analysis
		7.1.2 Cycle Time Efficiency
		7.1.3 Critical Path Method
		7.1.4 Little's Law
		7.1.5 Capacity and Bottlenecks
		7.1.6 Flow Analysis for Cost
		7.1.7 Limitations of Flow Analysis
	7.2 Queues
		7.2.1 Basics of Queueing Theory
		7.2.2 M/M/1 and M/M/c Models
		7.2.3 Limitations of Basic Queueing Theory
	7.3 Simulation
		7.3.1 Anatomy of a Process Simulation
		7.3.2 Input for Process Simulation
		7.3.3 Simulation Tools
		7.3.4 A Word of Caution
	7.4 Recap
	7.5 Solutions to Exercises
	7.6 Further Exercises
	7.7 Further Readings
8 Process Redesign
	8.1 The Essence of Process Redesign
		8.1.1 Product Versus Process Innovation
		8.1.2 Redesign Concepts
		8.1.3 The Devil's Quadrangle
		8.1.4 Approaches to Redesign
		8.1.5 The Redesign Orbit
	8.2 Transactional Methods
		8.2.1 Overview of Transactional Methods
		8.2.2 7FE
		8.2.3 Heuristic Process Redesign
			Redesign Heuristics
	8.3 Transformational Methods
		8.3.1 Overview of Transformational Methods
		8.3.2 Business Process Reengineering
		8.3.3 Product-Based Design
			The Product Data Model
			Deriving a Process
	8.4 Recap
	8.5 Solutions to Exercises
	8.6 Further Exercises
	8.7 Further Readings
9 Process-Aware Information Systems
	9.1 Types of Process-Aware Information Systems
		9.1.1 Domain-Specific Process-Aware Information Systems
		9.1.2 Business Process Management Systems
		9.1.3 Architecture of a BPMS
		9.1.4 The Case of ACNS
	9.2 Advantages of Introducing a BPMS
		9.2.1 Workload Reduction
		9.2.2 Flexible System Integration
		9.2.3 Execution Transparency
		9.2.4 Rule Enforcement
	9.3 Challenges of Introducing a BPMS
		9.3.1 Technical Challenges
		9.3.2 Organizational Challenges
	9.4 Recap
	9.5 Solutions to Exercises
	9.6 Further Exercises
	9.7 Further Readings
10 Process Implementation with Executable Models
	10.1 Identify the Automation Boundaries
	10.2 Review Manual Tasks
	10.3 Complete the Process Model
	10.4 Bring the Process Model to an Adequate Granularity Level
		10.4.1 Task Decomposition
		10.4.2 Decomposition of Ad Hoc Sub-Processes with CMMN
		10.4.3 Task Aggregation
	10.5 Specify Execution Properties
		10.5.1 Variables, Messages, Signals, Errors, and Their Data Types
		10.5.2 Data Mappings
		10.5.3 Service Tasks
		10.5.4 Send and Receive Tasks, Message and Signal Events
		10.5.5 Script Tasks
		10.5.6 User Tasks
		10.5.7 Task, Event, and Sequence Flow Expressions
		10.5.8 Implementing Rules with DMN
		10.5.9 Other BPMS-Specific Properties
	10.6 The Last Mile
	10.7 Recap
	10.8 Solutions to Exercises
	10.9 Further Exercises
	10.10 Further Readings
11 Process Monitoring
	11.1 The Context of Process Monitoring
	11.2 Process Performance Dashboards
		11.2.1 Operational Dashboards
		11.2.2 Tactical Dashboards
		11.2.3 Strategic Dashboards
		11.2.4 Tools for Dashboard Creation
	11.3 Introduction to Process Mining
		11.3.1 Process Mining Techniques
		11.3.2 Event Logs
	11.4 Automated Process Discovery
		11.4.1 Dependency Graphs
		11.4.2 The α-Algorithm
		11.4.3 Robust Process Discovery
		11.4.4 Quality Measures for Automated Process Discovery
	11.5 Process Performance Mining
		11.5.1 Time Dimension
		11.5.2 Cost Dimension
		11.5.3 Quality Dimension
		11.5.4 Flexibility Dimension
	11.6 Conformance Checking
		11.6.1 Conformance of Control Flow
		11.6.2 Conformance of Data and Resources
	11.7 Variants Analysis
	11.8 Putting It All Together: Process Mining in Practice
	11.9 Recap
	11.10 Solutions to Exercises
	11.11 Further Exercises
	11.12 Further Readings
12 BPM as an Enterprise Capability
	12.1 Barriers to BPM Success
	12.2 The Six Success Factors of BPM Maturity
		12.2.1 Strategic Alignment
		12.2.2 Governance
		12.2.3 People
		12.2.4 Culture
	12.3 Measuring Process Maturity and BPM Maturity
	12.4 Recap
	12.5 Solutions to Exercises
	12.6 Further Exercises
	12.7 Further Readings
A Redesign Heuristics
	A.1 Customer Heuristics
	A.2 Business Process Operation Heuristics
	A.3 Business Process Behavior Heuristics
	A.4 Organization Heuristics
	A.5 Information Heuristics
	A.6 Technology Heuristics
	A.7 External Environment Heuristics
References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1




Fundamentals of
Business Process

Management
Marlon Dumas · Marcello La Rosa
Jan Mendling · Hajo A. Reijers
Second Edition



Page 2




FundamentalsofBusinessProcessManagement



Page 273




6.7FurtherExercises249
·
Traditionallythisishowtheprocessissetupbutthereisnostrong
reasonforit;
ŒAgencychecktakestoolong,why?
·
Exchangeswiththeagencyareviapost,why?
·
Agencyrequiresoriginal(orcerti˚ed)documentsduetoregulatory
requirements.
†Academiccommitteetakestoolong,why?
ŒDocumentsareexchangedbyinternalmailbetweenadmissionsof˚ceand
committee.
ŒAcademiccommitteeonlymeetsatspeci˚edtimes.
†Admissionof˚cedelaysthenoti˚ca
tionafteracademicassessment,why?
ŒNotenoughinformationavailabletoanalyzethisissue(probablydueto
batchingŠadmissionsof˚cesendsnoti˚cationsinbatches).
Theaboveanalysisalreadysuggestsoneobviousimprovementidea:performthe
academiccommitteeassessmentinparalleltotheagencycheck.Anotherimprove-
mentopportunityistoreplaceinternalmailcommunicationbetweenadmissions
of˚ceandacademiccommitteewithelectroniccommunication(e.g.,documents
madeavailabletocommitteemembersviaaWebapplication).
6.7FurtherExercises
Exercise6.8
Considerthepharmacyprescriptio
nful˚llmentprocessdescribedin
Exercise
1.6
(page
30
).IdentifythestepsinthisprocessandclassifythemintoVA,
BVA,andNVA.
Exercise6.9
Considertheprocure-to-payp
rocessdescribedinExercise
1.7
(page
31
).IdentifythestepsinthisprocessandclassifythemintoVA,BVA,
andNVA.
Exercise6.10
Considerthepharmacyprescriptio
nful˚llmentprocessdescribedin
Exercise
1.6
(page
30
).Whichtypesofwastecanyouidentifyinthisprocess?
Exercise6.11
Considerthebooking-to-cashprocessataphotographycompany
(Fotof)describedinExercise
4.31
(page
155
).Whichtypesofwastecanyouidentify
inthisprocess?
Exercise6.12
Considerthefollowingsummaryofissuesreportedinatravel
agency.
Atravelagencyhasrecentlylostseveralmedium-sizedandlargecorporatecustomersdue
tocomplaintsaboutpoorcustomerservice.Themanagementteamofthetravelagency
decidedtoappointateamofanalyststoaddressthisproblem.Theteamgathereddataby



Page 274




2506QualitativeProcessAnalysis
conductinginterviewsandsurveyswithcurrentandpastcorporatecustomersandalsoby
gatheringcustomerfeedbackdatathatthetravelagencyhasrecordedovertime.About2%
ofcustomerscomplainedabouterrorsthathadbeenmadeintheirbookings.Inoneoccasion,
acustomerhadrequestedachangetoa˜ightbooking.Thetravelagentwroteanemailtothe
customersuggestin
gthatthechangehadbeenmadeanda
ttachedamodi˚edtravelitinerary.
However,itlaterturnedoutthatthemodi˚edbookinghadnotbeencon˚rmedinthe˜ight
reservationsystem.Asaresult,thecustomerwasnotallowedtoboardthe˜ightandthisled
toaseriesofsevereinconveniencesforthecustomer.Similarproblemshadoccurredwhen
bookinga˜ightin
itially:thecustomerhadaskedforcertaindates,butthe˜ighttickets
hadbeenissuedfordifferentdates.Additionally,customerscomplainedofthelongtimesit
tooktogetresponsestotheirrequestsforquot
esanditineraries.In
mostcases,employees
ofthetravelagencyrepliedtorequestsforquoteswithin2Œ4workinghours,butinthecase
ofsomecomplicateditineraryr
equests(about10%oftherequests),ittookthemupto2
days.Finally,about5%ofcustomersalsocomplainedthatthetravelagentsdidnot˚ndthe
best˜ightconnectionsandpricesforthem.Severalcustomersreportedthattheyhadfound
betteritinerariesandpricesontheWebbysearchingbythemselves.
1.Documenttheissuesintheformofanissueregister.Tothisend,youmayassume
thatthetravelagencyreceivesaround100itineraryrequestsperdayandthatthe
agencymakes50bookingsperday.Eachbookingbringsagrosspro˚tof
e
100
totheagency.
2.Analyzetheissuesdescribedaboveusingrootcauseanalysistechniques.
Exercise6.13
Considerthebooking-to-cashprocessataphotographycompany
(Fotof)describedinExercise
4.31
(page
155
)aswellasthefollowingdata:
†Fotofhas25photostudiosanditslatestannualturnoverfromphotography
servicesis17.6million,outofwhich25%fromsalestocorporatecustomers
andtherestfromprivatecustomers.
†Thecompanymakesanadditional5millionrevenueinsalesofphotography
equipmentandaccessoriesatitsstudios.
†Thereareonaverage3.5photographersand2techniciansperstudio.
†Onaverage,anin-studiosessionlasts45min,whileanon-locationsessionlasts
3.5h(includingtransportationtime).
†20%ofprivatecustomershootingsand100%ofcorporatecustomershootings
areon-location.Theremainingonesareon-studio.
Ananalystconductedastakeholderanalysisfocusingonthreetypesofa
stakeholders:thecustomer,theprocessp
articipants,andthem
anagement(process
ownerandbusinesssponsor).Themain˚ndingsofthisanalysisaresummarized
below.
Customer
Accordingtothelatestcustomersurvey,customersatisfactionstandsat
80%(decliningfrom85%inthepreviousyear)andnetpromoterscoreat70%
(decliningfrom80%inthepreviousyear).Commoncustomercomplaintsexist
inregardsto:(i)turnaroundtimesbetweenthephotoshootingsessionandthe
availabilityofpicturesforreview,aswe
llastheturnaroundtimesfordeliveryof
digitalcopiesandprintouts;(ii)turnaroundtimesforresolvingcustomercomplaints
particularlywithregardtoperceiveddefectsinthedelivereddigitalandprinted
copies;(iii)mishandledorforgottenordersorspecialrequests.Customersoften



Page 545




526
Index
service
350
adapter
396
connector
396
external
350
in-only
389
in-out
389
interface
389
operation
389
asynchronous
389
synchronous
389
RESTful
390
servicelevelagreement
60
servicetask
see
task
servicetime
see
processingtime
Service-OrientedArchitecture
345
,
362
SevenProcessModelingGuidelines
192
,
193
,
210
shortestqueue
393
Signavio
86
,
194
,
286
,
456
,
479
simulation
see
processsimulation,
305
simulationlog
279
SixSigma
7
,
60
,
308
SixThinkingHats
305
SLA
see
servicelevelagreement
smartcontract
369
socialnetwork
167
,
345
,
488
,
498
softwaredevelopment
343
softwaresystem
96
soundness
186
,
187
,
371
specialization
43
speechactmodeling
305
split
80
,
180
,
184
AND
82
Œ
84
,
87
,
89
,
97
,
119
data-based
126
event-based
180
OR
87
,
89
,
255
XOR
80
,
81
,
83
,
86
Œ
89
,
91
,
117
,
126
,
255
,
259
,
394
data-based
379
event-based
126
,
127
,
140
splitminer
438
,
439
,
442
,
464
,
468
,
469
stakeholder
24
stakeholderanalysis
225
StandardCMMIAppraisalMethodforProcess
Improvement
500
standardization
450
state
see
processinstance
step
213
STP
see
Straight-Through-Processing
Straight-Through-Processing
356
strategicalignment
26
,
27
,
475
,
477
Œ
480
strategicgoal
37
strategicimportance
41
,
56
strategymap
36
structuralcorrectness
184
structuredheuristicsminer
438
,
439
,
442
,
469
sub-process
102
adhoc
122
,
382
collapsed
104
event
135
expanded
104
global
106
successfactor
478
supplychain
50
SupplyChainManagementsystem
343
SupplyChainOperationsReferenceModel
46
,
114
supportprocess
41
synchronization
83
.
see
token
synchronizingmerge
88
syntacticquality
183
syntacticalcorrectness
187
syntax
92
systembinding
396
systemengineer
26
T
task
4
,
102
,
388
,
394
automated
372
manual
372
receive
374
,
390
,
391
rule
374
script
374
,
391
send
374
,
390
,
391
service
374
,
389
user
372
,
391
taskallocationstrategy
392
technologyfault
129
terminology
49
textannotation
96
TheOpenGroupArchitectureFramework
37
,
72
theoreticalcapacity
267
TheoryofConstraints
308
throughputtime
see
cycletime
ticketingsystem
449
time
17
,
59
,
175
timelinechart
443
timeout
133
timestamp
422
to-be
21
Œ
23
,
287
,
305
,
322
,
334
,
335
,
338
,
477
to-be-executed
384
TOC
see
TheoryofConstraints



Page 546




Index
527
TOGAF
see
TheOpenGroupArchitecture
Framework
token
76
merging
83
TotalQualityManagement
7
touchpoint
483
ToyotaProductionSystem
7
,
218
TPS
see
ToyotaProductionSystem
trace
426
trace˚lter
431
transactionprocessing
347
transactionstage
50
transactionalmethod
see
redesignmethod
transformationalmethod
see
redesign
method
Transparency
358
treediagram
241
TRIZ
308
trust
368
U
UIMS
see
UserInterfaceManagement
System
UMLActivityDiagrams
18
understa
ndab
ility
189
unitcapacity
269
unitload
268
unrealizedvalue
221
UserInterfaceManagementSystem
357
usertask
see
task
V
VA
see
ValueAdding
validation
187
validity
188
ValueAdding
214
,
216
,
217
,
220
,
244
,
249
valuechain
44
value-chainmodeling
42
variantsanalysis
420
,
421
,
458
veri˚cation
187
violation
451
vocabulary
92
W
waitingtime
60
,
261
,
262
,
442
waste
defects
219
inventory
219
,
221
,
227
,
228
,
245
motion
219
,
220
overprocessing
219
,
222
,
223
,
226
,
245
overproduction
219
,
223
,
226
,
245
transportation
219
,
220
waiting
219
,
221
,
227
,
245
Webservice
15
,
114
,
341
,
352
,
361
,
372
,
385
,
390
,
391
,
398
WebServicesDescriptionLanguage
390
Webtechnology
385
WfMC
see
Work˜owManagementCoalition
WfMCreferencemodel
see
Work˜ow
ManagementCoalition
WfMS
see
Work˜owManagementSystem
whitebox
see
pool
why-whydiagram
236
WIP
see
Work-In-Process
workitem
279
,
348
,
421
check-in
349
check-out
349
Work-In-Process
221
,
266
,
276
Work-in-Process
266
work˜ow
342
work˜owlog
426
Work˜owManagementCoalition
352
referencemodel
352
Work˜owManagementSystem
14
,
345
worklist
421
workloadreduction
355
workshop-baseddiscovery
172
,
174
Œ
177
WSDL
see
WebServicesDescription
Language
X
XES
see
eXtensibleEventStream
XML
385
,
390
XMLSchema
385
,
386
,
390
XORgateway
see
gateway
XSD
see
XMLSchema
Z
ZachmanFramework
37
,
72

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