Download Ethics and Human Interface Final Notes PDF

TitleEthics and Human Interface Final Notes
TagsMorality Sustainability Sustainable Development Pragmatism Relativism
File Size422.6 KB
Total Pages51
Document Text Contents
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20. Characteristics of Ethics of sustainability

21. The ethical Principles of sustainability

22. Creating a culture of Ethics in Public sector

I have discussed some question on the topic ethics in private and public life. I

think this topic is related to the topic ethics and civil services. So I will try to

cover those questions when I will start this topic.

23. Ethics in Public life

24. Ethics in public and private life: Questions

25. Ethics in Private sector

26. Elements of organizational ethical culture

Ethics and Human Interface : What is ethics ? (Note – 1)



Ethics comes from Greek word “ethos” means character, habit, culture, ways of

behavior etc.

” Ethics is the systematic study of human actions from the point of view of its

rightfulness or wrongfulness as means for the attainment of the ultimate

happiness. “

Ethics is the science what human ought to be as the reason of what one is. It

regulates and directs human life. It gives the right orientation to one‟s existence.

As a theory ethics provides the basic fundamental principles of moral judgment. .As

a practice it is concerned about the end to be gained and the means of attaining it.

Ethics is not only general and abstract rule of action (e.g. “do good or avoid evil”), but

also particular and concrete precepts (e.g. help the poor, obey legitimate authority, be

truthful, adultery is bad etc). These particular and concrete precepts come from

moral consciousness.

Ethics deals with voluntary actions of human means the actions done by human

consciously, deliberately and in view of an end.

Thus, ethics is not merely set of codes. It is to help one to find what is good and how

to get it.



Ethics and Human interface (Note – 2 ) : Role of Ethics

In human behavior ethics role is to decide how human must behave. In human

activity ethics role is to decide how human ought to be act. In political and social

life ethics decides how human‟s life and institution must organize to be moral.

In economic life of human ethics deals with those activity which are the conditions of

the attainment of the highest end of life.



Ethics and Human interface (Note – 3): Importance of Ethics

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for private benefit, without concern for (or perhaps even to the detriment of) the

common good, the larger society may call in the social mortgage. This means, first,

that people are obliged to help the poor and needy and, further, that if such help is

not forthcoming, and if a person is in extreme necessity, “he has the right to take

from the riches of others what he himself needs.” The notion of a social mortgage

places a much more severe constraint upon the market and private property than does

the notion of full cost accounting.

3.A number of principles from environmental ethics must also be taken into account

in an ethic of sustainability. One of the most important environmental principles for

sustainability is the precautionary principle. In its simplest and most general form,

the precautionary principle states that in the absence of a strong scientific

consensus that an action or policy will not cause harm to human health or the

environment, caution should be used in implementing that action or policy. Strict

adherence to the precautionary principle would prevent the use of pesticides whose

wider ecological effects are not understood, for example. It might also restrict

damaging use of certain resources or landscapes – such as mining or grazing – if there

is no certainty that the damage can be reversed.

The precautionary principle places the burden of responsibility on those who would act

rather than on those who must, after the fact, suffer from or attempt to reverse

harm done by new or unproven scientific procedures. Like the polluter pays principle,

it reflects larger ethical claims. It assumes that progress or innovation is not an

absolute value; that individuals and organizations are responsible for the possible, not

just likely, effects of their actions. The precautionary principle also reflects a

particular understanding of the relationship between knowledge and morality, insofar

as it identifies as immoral actions that are taken without full knowledge of their

possible outcomes. The precautionary principle has been widely affirmed by

environmental groups and is central to sustainability.

Related to the precautionary principle is the reversibility principle, according to which

scientists or policymakers should not proceed on a potentially harmful course unless

its consequences can be reversed. People should not make decisions, other words that

cannot be undone by future generations. A primary example of an irreversible action is

the extinction of species. Again, this principle reflects larger ethical claims: that

people owe obligations to future generations (and perhaps to non-human nature) and

those immediate desires or interests should not be satisfied at the expense of the

interests of future generations.

As central tenets of sustainability, the polluter pays, reversibility, and

precautionary principles all assert that those who are responsible for implementing

technologies must be prepared to address the possible consequences of their

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available in public domain. This right extends to data in electronic forms and

information technology act 2000 in which there is a provision of punishment for

violation of privacy, so it facilitates protection of such data.

Since independence broad technological changes have taken place. The ability of

organizations to collect, store and process personal data has increased. Not many

digital technologies are designed to obtain detailed logs of their usage by individuals,

which are then accessible for surveillance and marketing purposes.

Online activities are particularly closely monitored. Even where users are not required

to provide personal data when accessing services on the Internet, individuals can be

identified through the Internet Protocol (IP) address of their computer, and often

through digital „cookies‟ or electronic identifiers left on their browser by Web sites.

Internet communication and browsing tends to leave logs of Web pages visited, email

and instant message senders and recipients, voice over IP callers, goods examined and

purchased, advertisements viewed and searches.

What is more, this development is widespread, not only on the Internet. Cameras are

used for surveillance. Mobile phones sending location information to the network

providers enables contextual advertising and mapping. Debit and credit card payment

systems record amounts spent and stores visited. Store loyalty cards enable

databases of purchases to be compiled. Biometrics, measurements that uniquely

identify individuals, such as fingerprints and photographs, nowadays also include DNA

matching, and face and voice recognition. The rise of „Web 2.0‟ technologies, allowing

user-to-user contact, has resulted in sites for sharing pictures, videos and movies on

Web logs (blogs), and last but not least, the nowadays enormous global social networks.

Data mining tools have been developed to find patterns in large collections of personal

data, to identify individuals and to attempt to predict their interests and

preferences. Companies use these technologies to obtain large customer bases.

Governments are increasingly analyzing and exchanging information on their citizens.

Individuals are shopping online and using social networking sites to share information

about themselves and their family, friends and colleagues.

Overall, collection, storage and usage of personal data have become a part of everyday

life at all levels of society.

So, nowadays it is a necessity of disclosing personal information:

1. Disclosing personal information is an increasing part of modern life

2.The government asks for more and more personal information

3.Nowadays one needs to log into several systems using several usernames and

passwords.

4.There is no alternative than to disclose personal information if one wants to obtain

products or services

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