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TitleDesign of a Remote Person View System for a Long Range UAV Aerospace Engineering
LanguageEnglish
File Size28.1 MB
Total Pages124
Table of Contents
                            Acknowledgments
Resumo
Abstract
List of Tables
List of Figures
Acronyms
Symbols
1 Introduction
	1.1 Motivation
	1.2 State of the Art
	1.3 Project Framing
	1.4 Objectives
	1.5 Structure of the Document
2 Description of the RPV System
	2.1 Description of UAV Systems
		2.1.1 Airborne
		2.1.2 Ground Station
	2.2 Legislation
		2.2.1 Bandwidth Legislation
		2.2.2 UAV Flying Legislation
	2.3 RPV System Requirements
3 Design of Control System
	3.1 Radio Control System
		3.1.1 Remote Control Transmitter
		3.1.2 Receiver
		3.1.3 Long-Range System (LRS)
	3.2 Flight Controller
	3.3 Telemetry Radio
	3.4 Radio Control Antennas
		3.4.1 Tx Antenna Testbed Selection
		3.4.2 Rx Antenna Testbed Selection
	3.5 Estimation for the Communication Link Systems
4 Design of Video System
	4.1 Remote-Person View Setup
		4.1.1 Camera
		4.1.2 On-Screen Display
		4.1.3 Video Transmitter and Receiver
		4.1.4 Video Feed Antennas
		4.1.5 Video Display
		4.1.6 Video Recorder
	4.2 Propagation Aspects of Video Transmissions
5 Setup of the Unmanned Air System
	5.1 Setup of the RPV Airframe
		5.1.1 APM 2.5 Between the Rx and the Servos
		5.1.2 Flight Controller Configuration
		5.1.3 MinimOSD Setup
		5.1.4 Video Transmitter Setup
	5.2 Setup of the Ground Station
		5.2.1 Control Station Setup
		5.2.2 RPV Station Setup
6 Sub-Systems Testing in Controlled Environment
	6.1 Testing of the Radio-Control Link Systems
		6.1.1 Test Design
		6.1.2 Test Results
	6.2 Testing of the Video Link System
		6.2.1 Test Design
		6.2.2 Test Results
	6.3 Testing of the Telemetry Radio
		6.3.1 Testing of the Telemetry Radio range
		6.3.2 Testing the Interference between the Telemetry Radio and the TSLRS
	6.4 Testing the Interaction between Video and Communications Systems
		6.4.1 Ground Station Interferences
		6.4.2 Onboard Interferences
		6.4.3 Pan and Tilt Testing
	6.5 Testing of the Energy Consumption
		6.5.1 Test Design
		6.5.2 Test Results
7 Flight Testing
	7.1 Short Range Flight Test
		7.1.1 RC Link Quality
		7.1.2 Video Link Quality
		7.1.3 Overall Flight Quality
	7.2 Longer Range Flight Test
		7.2.1 RC Link Quality
		7.2.2 Video Link Quality
		7.2.3 Overall Flight Quality
8 Final Considerations
	8.1 Achievements
	8.2 Future Work
Bibliography
A Design of an Antenna Tracker
	A.1 Problem Statement
	A.2 Long Range Design
B Airframe and Engine Testbed Selection
	B.1 Airframe Testbed Selection
		B.1.1 Weight Distribution
	B.2 Electric Motor and Propeller Testbed Selection
		B.2.1 Propeller
		B.2.2 Electric Motor
C Sub-systems Schematics
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Design of a Remote Person View System
for a Long Range UAV

Pedro de Oliveira Martins Gersão Miller

Thesis to obtain the Master of Science Degree in

Aerospace Engineering

Supervisor: Prof. André Calado Marta

Examination Committee

Chairperson: Prof. Filipe Szolnoky Ramos Pinto Cunha
Supervisor: Prof. André Calado Marta

Member of the Committee: Prof. Agostinho Rui Alves da Fonseca

June 2015

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Figure 5.1: 4 Channels plane setup [63].

The flight controller must be facing forward, the GPS connector should also face forward. The board

must also be right side up (Fig. 5.2(a)), with the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) shield at the top. It is

important that it is attached with velcro to the airframe and mounted on a solid platform, as seen in Fig.

5.2(b), so that it does not move around during flight, be as close as possible to level when the plane is in

its flying orientation and, also, it would have to be as close to the center of gravity as possible because

that is where the vibration is the least. It is also necessary the supplied APM Power Module for the

power source and the Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) to power the servos and motor as seen in Fig.

C.2 from Appendix C.

(a) Direction of the APM with the air-
craft [64].

(b) APM attached with velcro to the airframe.

Figure 5.2: Concerns about the mounting of the APM.

5.1.2 Flight Controller Configuration

Before using the APM, it has to be configured first which is done through Mission Planner (MP) and

for that there has to be a properly setup RC transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) pair. The configura-

tion process starts by uploading the latest firmware into the APM which, in this case, is the arduplane

firmware.

The port assigned to the APM has to be Arduino Mega 2560 and the Baud rate set to 115200.

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Clicking on ’Connect’ button, the MP will connect via MAVLink which is a protocol for communicating

with small unmanned vehicle [29].

Since the Skywalker is a standard airframe, a pre-made configuration file can be used [63] but there

is still the need to configure it for the hardware in question, which is done in MP with the button ’Calibrate

Radio’. The results should then match Table 5.2:

Channel PWM Low High
Ch 1: Roll left Roll Right
Ch 2: Pitch forward Pitch back
Ch 3: Throttle down(off) Throttle up
Ch 4: Yaw left Yaw right
Ch 8: Manual Autopilot

Table 5.2: Radio Calibration End Result.

Figure C.2 from Appendix C shows a detailed connection scheme of how the RC sub-system was

assembled.

5.1.3 MinimOSD Setup

The MinimOSD is a small circuit board that gets telemetry data from the APM flight controller and

overlays it on the FPV monitor. To connect the MinimOSD to the APM 2.5 a 5-pin splitter cable is used.

The connections shown in Fig. 5.3 are required.

Figure 5.3: MinimOSD between the APM and Video Transmitter Schematics.

Regarding the setup of the MinimOSD, it is based on two components: a processor and a video chip.

From the digital side, the flight controller is providing MAVlink data to the OSD processor allowing it to

parsing and packaging. Then, the video chip overlays the data onto the video stream outputting it to the

camera.

It is possible connect the MinimOSD to the computer and load its firmware. For this it is necessary

an FTDI cable and download its respective driver so that the computer recognises the FTDI cable. Both

the FTDI and the OSD have 6 pins so the only thing of concern when connecting the two is just putting

the Vcc together (5 V with 5 V).

To configure the OSD there are a couple of programs that need to be downloaded: the MinimOSD

Config. Tool as well as the binaries that contain the firmware. MinimOSD-Extra [65] is a developer

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Appendix C

Sub-systems Schematics

Figure C.1: Video transmission schematic.

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Figure C.2: RC sub-system Schematic.

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