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ED 291 746






SP 030 064

Levy, Fran J.
Dance/Movement Therapy. A Healing Art.
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education,
Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Dance
354p.; Photographs will not reproduce well.
AAHPERD Publications, P.O. Box 704, Waldorf, MD 20601
Reports - Descriptive (141)

MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
*Dance Therapy; Elementary Secondary Education;
*Movement Education; *Physical Therapy; Self
Expression; *Therapeutic Recreation

This book examines the field of dance therapy from

its inception in the 1940's to the present. A detailed analysis is
conducted of the theory and practice of the major pioneers. The book
covers biographical reports and the influence of many dance therapy
leaders. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is discussed as well as dance
therapy in specific patient/client settings. Appended are: (1)
listing of survey repondents; (2) information on the American Dance
Therapy Association; and (3) the Dance Therapy questionnaire. A
34-page bibliography is included. (JD)

Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made

from the original document.

Page 2

P Movement

er y




Office of Educational Reseorch and Improvement


O The document nes been reproduced es
waved from the person of organaahon
originating it

O Minor changes nay* been made to nnprOmli
rproduchon Quality

Pants al view or °gluons stated in tnni door
mnt do not ncssersy represent officio
OERl position or policy

Fran j. Levy
Ed.D., M.S.W., A.D.T.R.


Page 177

... to use body work for the purposes of discovering new experience, interpersonal com-
munication and intra-psychic reorganization through insight into meaning, though sorra
reconstitutional work may occur. (1970, p. 144)

Specifically, she focuses on the following areas:

(1) developing the capacity of attending to and identifying aspects of one's experience; (2)
locating sensation and movement impulses and any other body feelings; (3) discovering
the motions and dynamic movements of tensions as patterns that arise from the inner
impulses; (4) . . . exploring the range of body functioning and expression as it emerges in
the therapy, quality of efforts, tension-relaxation, blocking, and the particular function it
serves in each case. . .. (1979, p. 144)

Janet Adler
Adler is another dance therapist who carries on the work of Mary Whitehouse. Originally
well known for her work with autistic children, Adler today specializes in working with adults
using "authentic movement." One of her particular interests is the role of the therapist as
"witness" (the empathic observer role) in the therapeutic relationship. This concept, brought
forward from her training with Whitehouse, has in recent years been a major area u: study
for Adler.

The witness, Adler (1985) explains, initially

"carries a larger responsibility for consciousness as she sits to the side of the movement
space [and watches]. She is not 'looking at' the person moving. She is witnessing, listening,
bringing a specific quality of attention or presence to the experience. ..." (p. 2)

As in the work of Whitehouse, Adler asks her people to move with their eyes closed. This
she believes helps the individual to expand and deepen his/her awareness of unconscious and
superconscious experiences. Most important in Adler's work is her emphasis on the rela-
tionship between the mover (patient/client) and the witness (or therapist). While the therapist/
witness role can be generalized into the category of empathic observer role, it should not be
confused with a passive experience. The relationship is an extremely active and interactive
one, although the interaction may not be immediately apparent. In short, through the verbal
and nonverbal interactions of the witness and mover, Adler believes that both can reach new
heights of self observation, awareness, and insight. Ultimately, Adler believes that the aware-
ness achieved has the potential to be transpersonal, that is, to go beyond the personal conscious
and toward a universal unconscious (Adler, 1985).

While Adler discusses the transpersonal aspects of the witness-mover relationship, she is
also cognizant of the similarities of the witness/mover relationship with that of the analyst/
analysand relationship and notes the importance of understanding the transference and
counter-transference phenomena which occur.

Expansion of the Mary Whitehouse Approach:
Jungian Aspects
As mentioned earlier. Whitehouse incorporated into her work certain Jungian concepts which
were passed on to and later expanded upon by some of her students. This section reviews

1°0 Dance/Movement Therapy

1 7 /

Page 178

the writings cf some of the Whitehouse disciples who have further clarified this connection
between Jungian thought and the use of body movement in therapy.

Joan Chodorow

Chodorow, formerly known as Smallwood, is a leading dance therapist and a Jungian analyst
who practices on the west coast. Her Banc' therapy trainingwas with Whitehouse and Schoop.
She discusses her use of a Jungian approach to dance therapy in her article "Dance Therapy
Ind the Transcendent Function" (1978). The "transcendent function," a Jungian concept, is
in "innate, dynamic process that serves to unite opposite positions within the psyche," thus

facilitating "a transition from one attitude to another' (1978, p 16). Chodorow quotes Jung
who described it as "a movement out of the suspension between two opposites, a living birth
that leads to a new level of being, a new situation" (1978, p. 16).

In an earlier paper "Philosophy and Methods of Individual Work" (1974), Chodorow dif-
ferentiates two approaches to dance therapy, one movin '4:sward the conscious and the other
toward the unconscious. The former, Chodorow believes, is usually more appropriate for the
disturbed/psychotic patient, who needs a sense of conscious, everyday reality and movement
experiences that st -ngthen ego boundaries. T3'.s approach, Chodorow states, may include:

.. . use of structured rhythms, . .. clearly organized spatial patterns, (and) intentional
use of weight (which) will help the person develop a more realistic body image and
strengthen his or her conscious viewpoint. (1978, p. 17)

The second approach, which uses movement "as a means of opening to the unconscious"
(1978, p. 17), is usually more appropriate for the fair-to-well functioning individual whose
ego is more intact.

This delineation of therapeutic approaches corresp3nds to Whitehouse's differentiation
between "I move" and "I am moved," as well as Dosamantes-Alperson'sdifferentiation between
the active and receptive modes of perception and behavior. Chodorow's purpose in proposing
the two approaches is to gain clarity and better theoretical understanding of varying needs
in different personalities. It is important to remember, however, that "in reality, there is
often a constant interchange, an ebb and flow back and forth between the two" (Smallwood,
1974, p. 26).

Chodorow works primarily with "relatively stable individuals who possess a . . . strong ego
viewpoint" (1978, p. 18). The focus of her work is the use of movement to give form to the
imagination. Her therapeutic approach to exploring the unconscious and integrating it into
consciousness is based on Jung's methori of "active imagination" (a process which was dis-
cussed by Whitehouse).

In a 1986 interview, conducted by dance therapist and clinical psychologist Nancy Zenoff
for the American Journal of Dance Therapy, Chodorow made many illuminating statements
about her studici with Mary Whitehouse and Trudi Schoop and also about her clinical work.
The following excerpts from this interview center around Chodrow's clarification and expan-
sion of the Whitehouse work.

NZ: Would you talk about how you use movement in analysis?
JC: Movement is not essential for everyone, but it is essential foi ,ome. And it's helpful

The tEvotlution of West Coast Influences 181
1 i Z..)

Page 353

Training, 14, 15, 51, 122-123, 146, 148,

prototypical program, 147
see also Graduate and Undergraduate

Transference, 147, 168, 216
Traumatic brain injury patients, 257-258
Turtle Bay Music School, 23, 51


Undergraduate level courses, 15, 104, 105
University of California, Los Angeles, 91
University of Wisconsin, 103, 104, 105
UR experience (Schoop), 77
Urban adult, 33-34, 36-37


Verbal expression, 235
Verbal facilitation, 43
Verbal therapy, influence on dance

therapy, 274-275
Videotape, c,f dance therapy group, 217
Visually impaired, 239-241

Wallock, Susan, 93 Warm-up, 27-30, 70,

emotional, 41
physical, 38-39

Weidman, Charles, 3

Weisbrod, Joanne, 92, 239
Weltman, Marsha, 255-256
Werme, Dawn, 259
West coast,

compared with east coast, 285-190
influences, see Chapter 15
pioneers, see Unit 1, Section B

White, Elissa Queyquep, 15, 145, 146,
148, 163, 249

Whitehouse, Mary, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 34, 61-
74, 92, 115, 176, 181, 185

heritage tree, 284-285
Whitehouse approach, 173, 180
Whitehouse Center, 188
Wholeness, 37, 169, 188
Wigman, Mary, 3, 4, 5, 51, 108, 115, 137,

Wigman, Mary, School, 61, 62
Willard Parker Hospital, 137
Winnicott, D.W., 161, 170, 171
Wise, Susan Keir, 253-254
Wisher, Peter, 241-242
Witness, 180, 188
Witness/mover relationship, 188
Wollman, Adolf, 9, 112
Workshops, 146


Zeitgeist, 145
Zwerling, Israel, 138, 145

3 N 3 Index 365


Page 354



Fran ). Levy, Ed.D., M.S.W., A.D.T.R.
Academy of Registered Dance Therapists
Dtplomate in Clinical Social Work
Doctorate in Creative Arts Therapies
Fellow in the Association for Psychotherapy and
Dr. Levy has a private practice In New York and
conducts training seminars for dance therapists. In
her work, she incorporates her experiences as an
artist, deiwer, and psychodramatist with her work
as a psychotherapist. Her eclectic and creative
approach to dance therapy is described In this
book along with an in-depth exploration and
organization of the entire field. Dr. Levy's deep
understanding of human needs and the impact of
body movements and self expression on growth
and development are reflected in this work. Dr.
Levy has been teaching and lecturing at coueges,
universities, and in mental health settings since
1972. Her innovative work is known and
respected worldwide.

"Bravoa remarkable Job! Especially Levy's chapter on
psychodramatfc techniques and the use of drawingInspiring
. . . excellent!!!"

Robert W. Stroka, Ph.D, ABPP
Past president of the American
Society of Psychotherapy and
Psychodrama. Executive
Director of the Institute for
Sociotherapy, N.Y.C.

Fran Levy has written a masterful treatise. It provides engrossing
reading for anyone in the therapeutic fields or the theatrical
professions, or simply for anyone interested in the art of

'11 adi Schoop
and Peggy Mitchell
Co-Authors of Won't You Join
The Dance

"An inspirational work . . . A must for all career counselors and
for anyone else in the position of counseling, advising, or
educating others."

Howard Ogler, Ph.D.
Psychologist and Author of
several booksDirector of the
Career Center at the University
of Texas, Austin

National Dance Assodation
American Alliance for Health, Physical

Education, Recreation, and Dance
1900 Association Drive
Reston, Virginia 22091

3 5 .1

ISBN 0-88314-380-1

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