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TitleClearing the Smoke : Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction
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LanguageEnglish
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Kathleen Stratton, Padma Shetty, Robert Wallace, andStuart Bondurant, EditorsCommittee to Assess the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction
Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
INSTITUTE OF MEDICINENATIONAL ACADEMY PRESSWashington, D.C.CLEARING
THESMOKEASSESSINGTHE
SCIENCEBASEFOR
TOBACCOHARMREDUCTION


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TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOXICOLOGY307Penn A, Chen LC, Snyder CA. 1994. Inhalation of steady-state sidestream smoke from onecigarette promotes arteriosclerotic plaque development. Circulation 90(3):1363-1367.Penn A, Snyder CA. 1993. Inhalation of sidestream cigarette smoke accelerates develop-ment of arteriosclerotic plaques. Circulation 88(4 Pt 1):1820-1825.Pershagen G. 1996. Smokeless tobacco. Br Med Bull 52(1):50-57.Phalen R. 2000. Physical-chemical characteristics of tobacco smoke. Open Meeting of theIOM Committee to Assess the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction: Washington,DC.Phillips DH, Farmer PB, Beland FA, et al. 2000. Methods of DNA adduct determination andtheir application to testing compounds for genotoxicity. Environ Mol Mutagen 35(3):222-233.Rajini P, Last JA, Pinkerton KE, Hendricks AG, Witschi H. 1994. Decreased fetal weights inrats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. Fundam Appl Toxicol 22(3):400-404.Reznik G, Marquard G. 1980. Effect of cigarette smoke inhalation during pregnancy inSprague-Dawley rats. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 4(5-6):141-152.Schildt EB, Eriksson M, Hardell L, Magnuson A. 1998. Oral snuff, smoking habits andalcohol consumption in relation to oral cancer in a Swedish case-control study. Int JCancer 77(3):341-346.Silbaugh SA, Horvath SM. 1982. Effect of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiopul-monary function of the awake rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 66(3):376-382.Sjostrand M, Rylander R. 1997. Pulmonary cell infiltration after chronic exposure to (1->3)-beta-D-glucan and cigarette smoke. Inflamm Res 46(3):93-97.Sopori ML, Goud NS, Kaplan AM. 1994. Effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system.Dean JH, Luster MI, Munson AE, Kimber I, eds. Immunotoxicology and Immuno-pharmacology. Second Edition ed. New York: Raven Press, Ltd. Pp. 413-434.Subramaniam S, Srinivasan S, Bummer PM, Gairola CG. 1999. Perinatal sidestream ciga-rette smoke exposure and the developing pulmonary surfactant system in rats. HumExp Toxicol 18(4):206-211.Subramaniam S, Whitsett JA, Hull W, Gairola CG. 1996. Alteration of pulmonary surfactantproteins in rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol140(2):274-280.Swafford DS, Middleton SK, Palmisano WA, et al. 1997. Frequent aberrant methylation ofp16INK4a in primary rat lung tumors. Mol Cell Biol 17(3):1366-1374.Thomas WR, Holt PG, Keast D. 1973. Cellular immunity in mice chronically exposed tofresh cigarette smoke. Arch Environ Health 27(6):372-375.Thomas WR, Holt PG, Keast D. 1974a. Development of alterations in the primary immuneresponse of mice by exposure to fresh cigarette smoke. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol46(4):481-486.Thomas WR, Holt PG, Keast D. 1975. Humoral immune response of mice with long-termexposure to cigarette smoke. Arch Environ Health 30(2):78-80.Thomas WR, Holt PG, Papadimitriou JM, Keast D. 1974b. The growth of transplantedtumours in mice after chronic inhalation of fresh cigarette smoke. Br J Cancer 30(5):459-462.Tice RR, Agurell E, Anderson D, et al. 2000. Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for invitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing. Environ Mol Mutagen 35(3):206-221.Vial WC. 1986. Cigarette smoking and lung disease. Am J Med Sci 291(2):130-142.Wahlberg I, Ringberger T. 1999. Smokeless tobacco. Davis DL, Nielsen MT, eds. WorldAgriculture Series; Tobacco Production, Chemistry and Technology. London: Blackwell Sci-ence. Pp 452-460.


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308CLEARING THE SMOKEWang T, Hopkins D, Schmidt C, Silva S, Hougton R,Takita H, Repasky E, Reed SG. 2000.Identification of genes differentially over-expressed in lung squamous cell carcinomasusing combination of cDNA subtraction and miroarray analysis. Oncogene 19:1519-1528.Winn DM. 1997. Epidemiology of cancer and other systemic effects associated with the useof smokeless tobacco. Adv Dent Res 11(3):313-321.Winn DM, Blot WJ, Shy CM, Pickle LW, Toledo A, Fraumeni JF. 1981. Snuff dipping andoral cancer among women in the southern United States. N Engl J Med 304(13):745-749.Witschi H, Espiritu I, Maronpot RR, Pinkerton KE, Jones AD. 1997a. The carcinogenicpotential of the gas phase of environmental tobacco smoke. Carcinogenesis 18(11):2035-2042.Witschi H, Espiritu I, Peake JL, Wu K, Maronpot RR, Pinkerton KE. 1997b. The carcinoge-nicity of environmental tobacco smoke. Carcinogenesis 18(3):575-586.Witschi H, Espiritu I, Uyeminami D. 1999. Chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-inducedlung tumors in A/J strain mice with dietary myo-inositol and dexamethasone. Car-cinogenesis 20(7):1375-1378.Witschi H, Lundgaard SM, Rajini P, Hendrickx AG, Last JA. 1994. Effects of exposure tonicotine and to sidestream smoke on pregnancy outcome in rats. Toxicol Lett 71(3):279-286.Witschi H, Uyeminami D, Moran D, Espiritu I. 2000. Chemoprevention of tobacco-smokelung carcinogenesis in mice after cessation of smoke exposure. Carcinogenesis 21(5):977-982.Zhu BQ, Sun YP, Sievers RE, Glantz SA, Parmley WW, Wolfe CL. 1994. Exposure to envi-ronmental tobacco smoke increases myocardial infarct size in rats. Circulation89(3):1282-1290.


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INDEX635carcinogenesis, 373-374, 399-404, 407cigarette-like products, 94
marketing factors, 61, 65public understanding of content, 60yield assessment, 87, 90, 91, 92, 94, 184,210, 211-212, 317-319, 373-374,399-401, 407Taxation, 119, 128, 202, 596, 603T cells, see LymphocytesTechnological innovationssee Drug treatments; Filters; Fire-safecigarettes; Modified tobaccoproducts; Potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs);
Ventilationautomobile safety, 41, 42, 43
FTC smoking machine, 2, 3, 26-27, 87-88, 90, 210-211, 226, 283-284, 317-319, 350, 352, 373, 380, 395, 404processing of tobacco, 66Teenagers, see AdolescentsTemperature factors, viii, 95, 210, 284definition of cigarette, 27Teratogenic effects, 545, 554-555
Thrombosis, 154, 157, 336-337, 339, 356,481, 485-486, 491, 493Time factorsaddiction, 255-256, 260, 262, 263-264adverse effects of treatment, 121
behavioral treatments, 117-118biomarkers, half-life, 152, 154, 156, 157,158, 250, 297, 316, 323, 324, 328,333, 376, 422burn rate, 87
chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD),503, 511-512committee charge, 4
dose-response assessment, 140, 141
duration of smoking, lifetime, 67, 76,151, 168, 390, 395, 396-397, 401,
402, 404, 419, 420, 471, 493, 508,
566, 572duration of smoking cessation, 75, 115,186, 409-415, 419, 438, 470, 473,
475, 476, 487, 490, 562see also Relapseexposure-to-adverse effect, ix, 140, 145,166, 511, 530FDA approval for medical devices, 124
legislation, 221
nicotine pharmacology, 246, 250, 251,255-256nicotine replacement drugs,blood concentrations, 99-101, 103
FDA approval, 123long-term use, 115, 121population surveys, 320PREP evaluation, 5, 141, 146, 147, 232,320reproductive effects,time to conception, 544surveillance, 181, 194
thrombosis bleeding, 154, 336
withdrawal symptoms, 255wound healing, 174, 175, 194, 561, 573Tobacco Testing Laboratory, 600Toluene, 89, 148, 290, 374Toxicology, 26-28, 34, 121, 129, 147-148,283-308, 553, 583see also Animal models; Biomarkers;Carbon monoxide; Dose-response relationship; Exposure;
Synergistic effects; Tar; Yieldassessmentadvertising and, 66arsenic, 72, 148, 184, 374asbestos, 89, 298, 408, 501, 599cyanide, 72, 89, 291, 324-325, 401, 549,561, 572environmental tobacco smoke, 283, 285,287, 289-290filters, 284, 287genetic susceptibilities, ix, 6, 13, 145,153, 164, 166, 192, 233, 344-347,390, 408-409, 416, 429, 436, 478,490, 508nicotine-derived, 28-29, 86, 94-95, 111-112, 173-174, 207, 270, 429-430,
554reproductive and developmentaleffects, 172, 545, 550, 552, 554-
555, 572PREP risk assessment, 144, 145, 147-150,204-205, 207, 208-209, 212-213,
228, 292, 302-303processing of tobacco, 85, 128regulatory issues, 9, 10-11, 128, 204-205,207, 212-213, 222, 224-225, 228research recommendations, 301-303
susceptibility to toxic effects, ix, 6, 13, 145,153, 164, 166, 192, 233, 344-347smoker knowledge of, 72-73, 77


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636INDEXsmoking machines, 2, 3, 26-27, 87-88, 90,210-211, 226, 283-284, 317-319,350, 352, 373, 380, 395, 404standards, 204, 283-284Toxic Substances Control Act, 125
True, 26, 64Tuberculosis, 501, 526, 528UUlcers, see Peptic ulcersUrine biomarkers, 12, 106, 109, 156, 157,171, 190, 250, 252, 295, 312, 313,314, 325, 326, 336-337, 339, 343,
346cancer, 326, 353-354, 376, 378, 407, 420-421, 422, 424, 429, 435, 437cardiovascular disease, 485, 486environmental tobacco smoke, 323, 348nonneoplastic respiratory diseases, 503,506, 523, 524, 525, 529, 531reproductive and developmentaleffects, 174, 545, 548, 553, 548VVapors, 27, 87, 88, 92, 94, 148, 284, 374Vascular activation, 12, 157, 169, 269, 337,480, 490-491, 493Vascular disease, see Cardiovascular disease;Extracardiac vascular diseaseVentilationasthma, 522
chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD),503, 510cigarette paper, 26, 71, 87, 88, 89, 90,121, 211, 286, 287, 317, 380, 399,595, 597respiratory infections, 526Visual impairments, see Ocular diseaseVitamin C, 486
Volatile organic compounds, 89, 148, 374WWeight, see Birthweight; Body weightWhite persons, see CaucasiansWithdrawal symptoms, 405, 569drug treatments, 96, 101, 104-114(passim), 123nicotine pharmacology, 161, 244, 245,254-260 (passim), 263-267
(passim)Women, see Gender factorsWomenÕs Health Study, 544
Workplaceoccupational toxins, 33, 140, 151, 164,166, 180, 195, 298, 329, 332, 350,
375, 377, 390, 408, 419, 420, 431,433, 508, 599smoking restrictions, 119-120, 422World Bank, 23
World Health Organization, 23, 25, 258, 470World Wide Web, see InternetWound healing, 174, 175, 194, 561, 573YYield assessment, 70-71, 87-88, 90, 92, 234,284see also Low-yield productscarbon monoxide, 87, 88, 90, 92, 94, 95,184, 210nitrosamines, 376particulates, 87regulatory issues, 183, 184, 207-208, 210-212, 219smoking machines, 2, 3, 26-27, 87-88, 90,210-211, 226, 283-284, 317-319,
350, 352, 373, 380, 395, 404surveillance, 182, 183, 184
tar, 87, 90, 91, 92, 94, 184, 210, 211-212,317-319, 373-374, 399-401, 407Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 93, 185-187,261, 320-321ZZyban, 30, 104, 123-124see also Bupropion

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