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Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
Half-Title
Title
Copyright
Dedication
Contents
Preface
Chapter 1 Edmund Husserl
	HUSSERL’S EPISTEMOLOGICAL PHENOMENOLOGY
		The point of departure
			The Logical Investigations
	HUSSERL’S TRANSCENDENTAL PHENOMENOLOGY
	HUSSERL’S GENETIC PHENOMENOLOGY
	NOTES
Chapter 2 Martin Heidegger
	BEING AND TIME
		The Introduction
		Division One: Preparatory Fundamental Analysis of Dasein
		Division Two: Time
	NOTES
Chapter 3 Jean-Paul Sartre
	BEING AND NOTHINGNESS
		The Introduction
		Part One: The Problem of Nothingness
		Part Two: Being For-itself
		Part Three: Being-for-others
		Part Four: Having, Doing and Being
	NOTES
Chapter 4 Maurice Merleau-Ponty
	THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF PERCEPTION
		Part One
		Part Two
		Part Three
	NOTES
Conclusion
	NOTES
Select bibliography
	PRIMARY TEXTS
		Edmund Husserl
		Martin Heidegger
		Jean-Paul Sartre
		Maurice Merleau-Ponty
	SECONDARY LITERATURE
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Four Phenomenological Philosophers

In this book, Christopher Macann guides the student through the
major texts of the four great figures of the phenomenological
tradition—Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre
and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Each chapter is devoted to one of the
four thinkers.

Since studying phenomenological philosophy under Ricoeur,
Christopher Macann has published Kant and the Foundations of
Metaphysics, Presence and Coincidence and a translation of
Theunissen’s Der Andere. His most recent work is Martin
Heidegger in the Routledge series Critical Assessments of the Leading
Philosophers. He has taught at the universities of Paris, California
and Pennsylvania; he is a research fellow of the Alexander von
Humboldt Foundation and is currently Professor of Philosophy at
Regent’s College in London.

Page 116

to answer these very questions to his own satisfaction which (in
part) explains the Kehre? Does Heidegger abandon the perspective
opened up with Being and Time in his later thinking or does the
latter constitute a prolongation of the former in another mode?

It lies altogether outside the scope of this work to attempt a
presentation of Heidegger’s later philosophy. However, a few
final remarks on the motives which might have impelled him to
resist the conclusions to which he had been led by Being and Time
are perhaps in order.

The ‘objective regression’ put into effect by Being and Time led
Heidegger to put praxis before theoria and, moreover, to define
the former in terms of such technologically biased practices as
building houses, driving cars, operating machinery etc. Such
ready-to-hand operations as these were supposed to ‘save’
thought from its derivative degeneration into theory. As
he watched technology taken over by the Nazi party for its own
party political purposes and as he witnessed the appalling
destruction which the mis-application of technological practice
brought with it, the ‘saving grace’ must have taken on something
of the proportions of the ‘devil incarnate ’. When the ‘saving
grace’ becomes the ‘devil incarnate ’, then clearly a radical
conversion is called for. But since, having already turned his back
on Husserl, he could no longer appeal to disinterested rationality
as the philosophical corrective, only one way out remained: to
characterize his own ‘first philosophy ’ as belonging to the same
‘metaphysical’ tradition as that to which Husserl ’s
phenomenology had already been relegated—and then to
disqualify the former along with the latter. The result was an
interpretation of the history of Western philosophy which
claimed to disclose a logic leading from Plato to Birkenau, from
Aristotle to Auschwitz, and from which Heidegger ’s later
thinking was exempt in so far as he had brought this tradition to
an end and embarked upon a ‘task of thinking ’ which was not
contaminated by the tradition. 20

The process of rethinking is inaugurated in the 1930s with the
Beiträge, Heidegger’s secret work, called by some his second
Meisterwerk,21 but which was never published until it was
incorporated into his posthumous Gesamtausgabe as volume 65.
Human being is no longer the one who takes over and controls (his
thought, his art, his world, his death, his destiny) but becomes
the one who is taken over, or rather, who is given over to being.

FOUR PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHERS 107

Page 117

Human being is no longer the one who calls but the one who is
called—by being.

Thus we seem to see a movement in a Hegelian direction—
with the priority accorded to being over human being. But
appearances are deceptive. For instead of a logic of being, what
Heidegger has to offer is a poetics of the being-in-being of human
being. The groundedness in the being of human being is never
entirely given up but is resumed in a new way which confers the
initiative upon being. In the end, how human being is to think
the ‘mystery of being’ is up to being, is left to being to decide. It
is not even a matter of Man proposing and God (Being?)
disposing. For so far from Man being able to propose, Man can
only respond to what is exposed, to what gives itself for thought
—the ‘there is (being)’ which is expressed in German as an ‘it
gives’ (es gibt), an ‘it gives’ which comes to signify, for the
Heidegger of the Kehre, the gift of being.22

NOTES

1 A great part of the fourth volume of Martin Heidegger: Critical
Assessments (Routledge: London, 1992) is given over to an
examination of this issue. I would recommend, in particular, the
papers by Dominique Janicaud (on the intellectual aspect of the
issue) and Tom Rockmore (on the impact of the debate in French
intellectual circles).

2 Martin Heidegger, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, trans. J.
Churchill (Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN, 1962), p. 94.

3 See Jean-Luc Marion’s paper in Heidegger: Critical Assessments, vol.
II.

4 See Franco Volpi’s paper in Heidegger: Critical Assessments, vol. II.
5 Deconstructivists who legitimize their procedure with reference to

Heidegger’s much vaunted ‘destruction’ should note that, in
Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie, Heidegger explicitly presents
‘destruction’ as one term in a trilogy, the other two terms of which
are ‘reduction’ and ‘construction’, thereby affirming his belief that
‘destruction’ cannot be separated from its complement,
‘construction’. Such is the dearth of constructive thinking today
that this point cannot be too persistently emphasized. See
Gesamtausgabe, vol. 24, p.31.

6 Metaphysics, Kant argues, will always be with us since human
beings are so constituted as to be condemned to raising
metaphysical questions. But whether such questions have ever

108 MARTIN HEIDEGGER

Page 231

Nothingness 111, 116, 117, 118,
119, 120, 121, 126, 127, 128, 129,
131, 137, 141, 145, 147, 154

ontic 62, 63, 64, 71, 72, 74, 77, 79,
80, 91, 163, 193, 201, 202

ontico-ontological 64, 79
ontological 3, 19, 30, 41, 42, 52, 57,

58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 70, 71, 72,
74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 91, 92, 94,
96, 97, 99, 100, 111, 112, 115, 116,
117, 119, 125, 126, 128, 129, 133,
136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142,
160, 162, 163, 175, 199, 200, 201,
202, 203, 204, 205;
pre-, 64, 65, 91, 133

ontology 23, 40, 57, 60, 64, 65, 66,
67, 69, 81, 91, 105, 106, 111, 112,
113, 116, 130, 132, 135, 137, 144,
156, 192, 201, 203, 204;
regional 25, 26, 40, 62, 63

originary/original 4, 13, 14, 15, 19,
21, 22, 34, 35, 36, 46, 48, 49, 50,
51, 52, 53, 82, 85, 91, 120, 125,
126, 133, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140,
141, 146, 150, 151, 162, 163, 164,
165, 168, 169, 174, 175, 176, 177,
178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185,
194, 195, 197, 199, 202, 204, 205

perception 12, 13, 15, 24, 27, 31, 33,
34, 35, 48, 159, 166, 167, 169, 174,
179, 181, 182, 188, 189, 190;
depth, 184;
internal, 2, 9, 10

Plato 8, 55, 60, 105, 107, 130
presence 43, 75, 105, 126, 128, 135,

136, 142, 143, 196
primordial 35, 39, 45, 46, 52, 59, 66,

67, 68, 70, 76, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83,
84, 85, 90, 91, 96, 99, 100, 104,
105, 106, 138, 170, 174, 175, 180,
182, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 191,
193, 194, 199

protention 20, 21, 22
psychologism 1, 2, 3, 4, 8

rationalism 174
reduction 16, 18, 19, 23, 27, 29, 35,

42, 46, 50, 52, 63, 160, 161, 201,
202;
genetic 50;
primordinal 46

resoluteness 96, 97, 98, 99, 155
retention 19, 20, 21, 22
Russell 1

Sartre 70, 71, 87, 110–58 158, 159,
186, 190, 191, 192, 197, 202, 204,
205, 206, 207

Scheler 130
sensation 5, 31, 47, 163, 164, 165,

166, 172, 181, 183, 188
solipsism/solipsistic 41, 42, 47, 48,

83, 141, 142, 147, 179, 191
space 26, 33, 72, 80, 81, 82, 104,

105, 132, 139, 173, 175, 179, 183,
184, 185, 186, 190, 195, 198

spatial 13, 26, 72, 80, 81, 82, 101,
104, 105, 139, 173, 175, 183, 184,
195

spatialize 132, 195
State-of-mind 62, 85, 86, 87, 92, 93,

97, 100, 101, 102

temporal 13, 19, 22, 23, 53, 57, 58,
59, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106,
132, 133, 135, 136, 138, 140, 171,
184, 192, 194, 195, 196

temporalize 99, 100, 103, 104, 135,
136, 196

time 16, 18, 19, 41, 44, 51, 52, 57,
58, 59, 82, 96, 100, 101, 103, 104,
105, 106, 118, 119, 132, 133, 134,
135, 136, 140, 171, 184, 189, 194,
195, 196, 197, 204

222 INDEX

Page 232

transcendence 17, 29, 39, 44, 94,
101, 115, 129, 131, 132, 133, 137,
141, 143, 147, 148, 161, 194

transcendent 16, 17, 18, 23, 27, 28,
29, 30, 33, 34, 38, 39, 47, 130

transcendental vii, 1, 16, 18, 19, 23,
24, 28, 30, 32, 38, 42, 44, 45, 46,
47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 57, 63, 79, 96,
110, 137, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168,
169, 194, 196, 200, 201, 202, 203,
204;
constitution 41, 44, 49, 50;
ego, 29, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48,
51, 52, 169;
logic 50;
object 38;
pre- vii, 204;
reduction 32, 50;
subject 49, 52, 161, 182, 195,
204;
truth 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 53, 58, 68,
69, 94, 95, 96, 121, 122, 133, 166,
194, 200, 203

understanding 11, 62, 85, 86, 88,
89, 90, 91, 100, 101, 102

world 26, 27, 37, 38, 42, 45, 46, 49,
50, 51, 52, 59, 63, 72, 73, 74, 75,
76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84,
85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95,
99, 100, 102, 103, 106, 114, 118,
127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 160, 161,
162, 163, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169,
170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179,
180, 181, 182, 184, 185, 186, 188,
189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195,
196, 200, 201, 204;
being-in-the- 59, 72, 76, 77, 78,
79, 80, 83, 85, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94,
95, 103, 104, 105, 127, 138, 159,
160, 168, 170, 173, 175, 179, 185,
194, 199, 204;
cultural 189;

human 189;
life- 52, 162;
natural 28, 34, 42, 47, 49, 186,
189;
objective 48, 164, 165, 166, 167,
170, 182, 186, 187, 188, 190;
own 47;
personal 42;
spiritual 40, 41, 42;
surrounding 47, 52, 74, 173;
with- 83, 84;
worldhood 59, 72, 74, 75, 79

INDEX 223

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