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TitleCementing Best Practice Jorge Sierra
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Total Pages60
Table of Contents
                            Purpose
Tips for Using This Document
	Reminders
	Time-Saving Navigation
Mud Removal
	Drilling Fluid Conditioning
	Pipe Movement
	Pipe Centralization
	Spacers and Flushes
Operational Priorities
	Job Volume Excess
	Flow Rate
	Downhole Equipment
	Centralizers
	Wiper Plugs
	Shoe Joint
	Considerations for Liner Jobs
Cement Design Priorities
	Priority No. 1—Density
	Priority No. 2—Pump Time (Thickening Time)
	Priority No. 3—Mixability
	Priority No. 4—Rheology
	Priority No. 5—Fluid Loss Control
	Priority No. 6—Compressive Strength
	Priority No. 7—Free Fluid and Settling
	Cement Slurry Specifications
Evaluation of Cementing Job Proposal
	Data Review and Verification
	Review of Cement Job Simulation
	Interpretation of “Pilot” Test Results and Laboratory Reports
	Monitoring and Recording
Prejob Preparations
	Cement Design Verification
	Equipment / Materials Verification
	Wellbore Circulation
Pumping Operations
	Pressure Testing
	Mixing and Pumping Cement
	Displacement
Shallow Water Flow Cementing
Wait on Cement (WOC)
Engineering and Planning
	Placement
	Plug Length
	Cement Volumes
	Cement Slurry Design
	Spacers
	Cement Slurry Displacement
	Mechanical Tools for Supporting Cement Plugs
	Waiting On Cement
Job Procedure
Engineering and Planning
	Placement
	Cement Volume
	Slurry Design
	Washes and Spacers
	Prejob Considerations
Job Procedures
	Bradenhead Cement Squeeze
	Bull Head Cement Squeeze
Cement Job Planning
Cement Job Mobilization
Cement Job Implementation
Cementing Recommendation
	Contents
	Reporting Responsibilities
Cement Designs for “Pilot Testing”
Laboratory Testing Requirements
On-Location Procedures
	Cement Bulk Blending
	Cement Load-Out for Land Operations
	Cement Loadout for Offshore Operations
	Prejob Procedures
Job Procedure
                        
Document Text Contents
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Cementing Best Practices

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Table of Contents

Cementing Best Practices
Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Tips for Using This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Reminders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Time-Saving Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Engineering and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Mud Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Drilling Fluid Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pipe Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pipe Centralization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Spacers and Flushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Operational Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Job Volume Excess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Downhole Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Centralizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Wiper Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Shoe Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Considerations for Liner Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Cement Design Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Priority No. 1—Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Priority No. 2—Pump Time (Thickening Time) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Priority No. 3—Mixability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Priority No. 4—Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Priority No. 5—Fluid Loss Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Priority No. 6—Compressive Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Priority No. 7—Free Fluid and Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Cement Slurry Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Evaluation of Cementing Job Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Data Review and Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Review of Cement Job Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Interpretation of “Pilot” Test Results and Laboratory Reports . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Job Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Monitoring and Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Prejob Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Cement Design Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Equipment / Materials Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Wellbore Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Pumping Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Pressure Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Mixing and Pumping Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Shallow Water Flow Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Wait on Cement (WOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
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Plug Cementing

Cementing Best Practices

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Job Procedure
1. Make sure the stinger is run at least 300 feet below the plug-setting depth.

Note—In an openhole situation, consider jetting across the interval.

2. Pull back to plug-setting depth, condition the mud, and circulate the annu-
lus clean a minimum of one bottoms-up while moving pipe.

3. Pump 500 ft (up to 50 bbl) of spacer/wash ahead of cement. As in primary
cementing, the weight of the spacer/wash should be halfway between mud
weight and cement weight.

4. Pump cement.

a. Check the density using a pressurized mud balance.

b. Control the mixing rate at 2 to 4 bbl/min.

c. If the cement is mixed with a jet mixer, dump the first quantities of
cement overboard until a consistent slurry is obtained.

d. If a batch mixer is used, disregard Step 4c.

5. Pump a volume of spacer/wash behind the cement to balance the spacer
ahead of cement. Rotate pipe (approximately 20 rpm) to improve cement
displacement into the annulus in deviated wells.

6. Displace at a maximum rate (limited by ECD) to improve gelled mud
removal; then reduce the displacement rate according to the following
guidelines:

• For hole sizes less than 12 1/4-in, pump at 2 bbl/min for the last 20
bbl.

• For hole sizes greater than 12 1/4-in, pump at 3 bbl/min for the last 40
bbl.

7. Under-displace by 1 to 3 bbl, excluding the volume of surface lines,
unless using a latchdown sub, to ensure the plug is not contaminated and
that the pipe pulls dry.

Note—For ultradeep jobs, a ball catcher sub and wiper plugs may be required
to effectively verify displacement.

8. Pull out of the plug at a controlled rate (approximately 25 stands/hour) to
prevent swabbing and contamination.
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Plug Cementing

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Minimize any unnec-
essary time from
shutdown to pullout.
The thickening time
estimate is based on
moving cement. Once
the cement is static,
this time allowance is
reduced.

Reverse circulation
can only take place if
the ECD would not
induce losses.

Do not run back into a
cement plug with the
stinger until the
cement has set. When
the plug has been
tagged, do not run
back into the cement
without circulation.
Caution—Minimize any unnecessary time from shutdown to pullout. The
thickening time estimate is based on moving cement; once the cement is
static, this time allowance is reduced.

Note—Step 9 below does not pertain to intermediate plugs set in series.

9. If ECD’s allow reverse circulation, pull back to approximately 500 ft
above the top of any cement plug that is not to be tagged, otherwise go to
the TOC; then, reverse circulate clean.

Caution—Reverse circulation can only take place if the ECD would not
induce losses.

If reverse circulation is not possible due to losses or differential sticking,
perform the following steps before POOH:

a. Flush the pipe clean.

b. Displace 150% of the pipe’s contents at maximum rate.

c. Drop a dart or pump 50 bbl of 50 pp. Nutplug in active mud to clean
pipe of cement rings. In the latter case, the size of openings in diverter
tool needs to be considered.

10.When going in hole to tag a cement plug, start washing down and rotating
pipe at the previous depth of last bottoms-up circulation or 500 to 1,000 ft
above the calculated top of cement.

Where a plug is being tagged with a kick-off assembly, use minimum flow
rates.

Caution—Do not run back into a cement plug with the stinger until the
cement has set. When the plug has been tagged, do not run back into the
cement without circulation.
2828

Page 59

Contractor Requirements

Cementing Best Practices

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Maintain an open line
of communication to
rig floor at all times.

The cementer is
responsible for
seeing that wiper
plugs darts or balls
are released at
appropriate times.
Job Procedure
1. Hold a safety meeting on the rig floor to review the job procedure and

address safety concerns.

Note—Maintain an open line of communication to rig floor at all times.

2. Pump spacer to break circulation.

3. Pressure test the lines and the operating system to a pressure above that
expected during the cementing operation.

4. Pressure up the bulk tanks.

5. Pump the job according to the job plan.

Note—The cementer is responsible for seeing that wiper plugs darts or balls
are released at appropriate times.

6. Use a data acquisition system to record pressure, rate, density and vol-
umes pumped during job.

7. Manually record the following events during the job.

• pressure test, psi and time

• start time for job

• dropping of any plug, darts or ball

• start and stop time for each fluid pumped

• start of displacement

• landing or shearing of any plug or dart and the observed pressure

• any unexpected pressure changes and any unscheduled shutdowns

• top plug bumping pressure and whether or not floats held

• cement in place

8. Count and record the volume of mix water by the number of displacement
tank volumes used.

9. Measure the cement slurry density with a pressurized drilling fluid bal-
ance.

10.Take cement slurry cup samples throughout the job.

11.Take three separate one-gallon mix water samples from the displacement
tank and three separate one-gallon dry cement samples from the surge can
or a transfer line after the job.
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Page 60

Contractor Requirements

Cementing Best Practices

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Do not pump any
fluids lighter in weight
than the drilling fluid
in the hole, unless
previously agreed
upon by respective
parties that a lighter-
weight spacer or flush
is to be used.

Do not open the
cement head after a
cementing fluid has
been pumped down-
hole, until after the
job is completed.

Do not sacrifice
cement slurry
density for pump rate.
12.Label and retain samples for possible laboratory testing until the well is
completed.

Caution—Do not pump any fluids lighter in weight than the drilling fluid in
the hole, unless previously agreed upon by respective parties that a lighter-
weight spacer or flush is to be used.

Do not open the cement head after a cementing fluid (spacer or slurry) has
been pumped downhole, until after the job is completed.

Do not sacrifice cement slurry density for pump rate.

Do not over-displace past the calculated displacement plus 50% of the shoe
track volume.

13.Prepare a job ticket, a printout of the data acquisition output and chart,
and any incident reports, and present them to the UNOCAL Drilling
Supervisor.
5757

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