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Table of Contents
                            Contents
RED ALERT Introduction to the GRE CAT. . . . . . . . . .
	DIAGNOSTIC TEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
		Analytical Writing Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
		Verbal Ability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
		Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RED ALERT GRE Analytical Writing Measure Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	UNIT
		Analytical Writing Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RED ALERT Verbal Ability Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	UNIT
		Sentence Completion Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	UNIT
		Analogy Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	UNIT
		Antonym Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RED ALERT Reading Comprehension Strategies. . .
	UNIT
		Reading Comprehension Review . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RED ALERT Why Study Vocabulary for the GRE? . .
	UNIT 6 Merriam- Webster’s Roots to Word Mastery. . . .
RED ALERT Quantitative Ability Strategies . . . . . . . .
	UNIT
		Mathematics Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RED ALERT Quantitative Comparisons Strategies . .
	UNIT 8 QUANTITATIVE COMPARISONS REVIEW . . . . . . . .
RED ALERT Data Analysis Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	UNIT
		Data Analysis Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	PRACTICE TEST
		Analytical Writing Measure . . . . . . . . .
	PRACTICE TEST
		Analytical Writing Measure . . . . . . . . .
	PRACTICE TEST
		Verbal Ability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	PRACTICE TEST
		Verbal Ability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	PRACTICE TEST
		Quantitative Ability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	PRACTICE TEST
		Quantitative Ability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDICES APPENDIX A The GRE CAT Success Math Review . . . . .
	APPENDIX B The GRE CAT Success Stress- Busting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
	APPENDIX C Applying to Graduate School . . . . . . . . . . .
	APPENDIX D Writing a Good Personal Essay . . . . . . . . .
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

GRE
T

CAT
SUCCESS

2004

Page 220

Once parentheses have been removed, the order of operations is multiplica-
tion and division, then addition and subtraction from left to right.

Example

(215 1 17) { 3 2 [(4 { 9) 4 6] 5 ?

Work inside the parentheses first:

(2) { 3 2 [36 4 6] 5 ?

Then work inside the brackets:

2 { 3 2 [6] 5 ?

Multiply first, then subtract, proceeding from left to right:

6 2 6 5 0

The placement of parentheses and brackets is important. Using the same numbers
as above with the parentheses and brackets placed in different positions can give
many different answers.

Example

215 1 [(17 { 3) 2 (4 { 9)] 4 6 5 ?

Work inside the parentheses first:

215 1 [(51) 2 (36)] 4 6 5 ?

Then work inside the brackets:

215 1 [15] 4 6 5 ?

Since there are no more parentheses or brackets, proceed from left to right,
dividing before adding:

215 1 2
1

2
5 212

1

2

MATHEMATICS REVIEW

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Page 221

OPERATIONS
When letter symbols and numbers are combined with the operations of arithmetic
(1, 2, {, 4) and with certain other mathematical operations, we have an alge-
braic expression. Algebraic expressions are made up of several parts connected
by a plus or a minus sign; each part is called a term. Terms with the same letter
part are called like terms. Since algebraic expressions represent numbers, they
can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided.

When we defined the commutative law of addition in arithmetic by writing a
1 b 5 b 1 a, we meant that a and b could represent any number. The expres-
sion a 1 b 5 b 1 a is an identity because it is true for all numbers. The
expression n 1 5 5 14 is not an identity because it is not true for all numbers; it
becomes true only when the number 9 is substituted for n. Letters used to
represent numbers are called variables. If a number stands alone (the 5 or 14 in
n 1 5 5 14), it is called a constant because its value is constant or unchanging. If
a number appears in front of a variable, it is called a coefficient. Because the letter
x is frequently used to represent a variable, or unknown, the times sign 3, which
can be confused with it in handwriting, is rarely used to express multiplication in
algebra. Other expressions used for multiplication are a dot, parentheses, or
simply writing a number and letter together:

5 { 4 or 5(4) or 5a

Of course, 54 still means fifty-four.

Addition and Subtraction
Only like terms can be combined. Add or subtract the coefficients of like terms,
using the rules for signed numbers.

Example 1
Add x 1 2y 2 2x 1 3y.

x 2 2x 1 2y 1 3y 5 2x 1 5y

Example 2
Perform the subtraction:

230a 2 15b 1 4c
2 (2 5a 1 3b 2 c 1 d)

Change the sign of each term in the subtrahend and then add, using the rules for
signed numbers:

230a 2 15b 1 4c
5a 2 3b 1 c 2 d

225a 2 18b 1 5c 2 d

UNIT 7

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in wording can affect how you approach writing the essay. Read these two sets of
instructions for the personal statement.

1. Please state your reasons for deciding to pursue a graduate degree in the
field you have chosen. Include references to your past study and research in
your chosen field, your plans for study at the university, including problems
and issues you want to address, and your personal goals.

2. The personal statement is an important part of your application. It is your
opportunity to provide information about your background, interests and
aspirations, and how they relate to your proposed academic program. In
your statement, describe your reasons for pursuing graduate study, the
program you hope to follow at the university, and the strengths and
weaknesses of your preparation for graduate study. All personal statements
should be double-spaced and typed, two to three pages.

These instructions cover more or less the same ground, but the second school
asks you to describe the strengths and weaknesses of your preparation for
graduate study, whereas the first school merely asks you to describe your past
study. When writing the essay for the second school, therefore, you must be sure
to address your preparation in greater detail. You will have to both describe and
evaluate your readiness—or lack thereof.

DON’T WRITE TOO MUCH OR TOO LITTLE
The second thing you should keep in mind as you begin your draft is the length of
the essay. Often, the length is specified; for example, the second school’s instruc-
tions above indicate that the statement should be two to three double-spaced pages.
What should you do if length is not specified, as it is not in the first set of instruc-
tions above? Then write one to two typed pages. An essay that is shorter than one
page does not allow room for you to develop your ideas. And an essay that is longer
than two pages becomes a chore for the admissions committee to read.

Finally, when you write your first draft, do not waste space by repeating
information that the admissions committee can get from other parts of your
application, like your transcript or résumé. Use the essay to provide them with
new information or to highlight particular accomplishments.

REVIEW THE FIRST DRAFT
Once you have drafted your essay, read the question again. Has your draft
answered the question fully? If the essay is incomplete, go back and fill in the
missing material. Then ask people for feedback. Although your spouse and friends
may be helpful, you may get more valuable suggestions from faculty members
who know you and who also know what a personal essay should be like. Ask
whether you’ve included things you should leave out or should add things you’ve
forgotten. Is the tone right? Have you achieved the right balance between
boasting and being too modest? Are there any problems with organization, clarity,
grammar, or spelling?

APPENDIX D

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Felecia Bartow, an M.S.W. candidate at Washington University in St. Louis,
gave her drafts to several people. “It helped to have a couple of people (from
different disciplines) read various drafts of my essays in order to give me feedback
on the clarity and conciseness of my writing.” Jim Lipuma, a Ph.D. candidate in
environmental science at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, recommends,
“Proofreading goes without saying, but always read it to yourself, have someone
else read it, and then read it aloud to someone. This will show all the problems,
highlight the areas that need work, and allow for any weaknesses to be exposed.”

PREPARE THE FINAL DRAFT
Once you’ve revised the essay and are satisfied with your final draft, ask someone
with a sharp eye to proofread it for you. The final draft should be absolutely free
of grammar and spelling errors, so do not rely on grammar- or spell-checks to find
all of the errors. Once you are done, be sure to keep backup files as well as a
hard copy. Although you won’t be able to use the whole essay for all your
applications, you may be able to use parts of it. If you do work this way, be
absolutely sure when you submit the final essays that you have not made any
careless editing mistakes. “If you’re applying to multiple schools, make sure that
you don’t have any ‘cut and paste’ errors in your application,” warns Neill Kipp, a
Ph.D. candidate in computer science at Virginia Tech. “If you apply to Florida
State in one letter and the University of Florida in another but forget to change
every occurrence of the university name, then count on being the semester-long
laughingstock of the admissions office.”

Finally, if you are submitting the statement on separate sheets of paper rather
than on the application form itself, put your name, social security number, and
the question on the essay, and type “see attached essay” on the application form.

MAKE IT YOURS
If after reading this appendix you are still daunted by the prospect of writing your
personal statement, just put the whole task aside for a few days. You will find that
the ideas, suggestions, and excerpts you’ve just read will trigger some mental
activity and that soon you will have some ideas of your own to jot down.

Also remember that it’s not necessary to have an exotic background or a
dramatic event to recount in order to write a good essay and gain admission to a
program. Admissions committees are looking for diversity—in gender, race,
ethnicity, nationality, and socioeconomic status, to name some obvious character-
istics. But they are also looking for people with diverse life experiences to add
richness to their student body. Your background, which may seem perfectly
ordinary to you, nevertheless has unique and relevant elements that can be assets
to the program you choose. Your task is to identify and build upon these ele-
ments to persuade the admissions committee that you should be selected.

WRITING A GOOD PERSONAL ESSAY

433GRE CAT Success www.petersons.com

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