Download Atlas of Postsurgical Neuroradiology: Imaging of the Brain, Spine, Head, and Neck PDF

TitleAtlas of Postsurgical Neuroradiology: Imaging of the Brain, Spine, Head, and Neck
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Total Pages716
Table of Contents
1: Imaging of Facial Cosmetic Surgery
	1.1	 Overview of Facial Cosmetic Materials and Their Imaging Features
	1.2	 Forehead Augmentation
		1.2.1	 Discussion
	1.3	 Cheek and Nasolabial Fold Augmentation
		1.3.1	 Discussion
	1.4	 Rhinoplasty
		1.4.1	 Discussion
	1.5	 Lip Augmentation
		1.5.1	 Discussion
	1.6	 Chin and Jaw Augmentation
		1.6.1	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Overview of Facial Cosmetic Materials and Their Imaging Features
		Forehead Augmentation
		Cheek and Nasolabial Fold Augmentation
		Lip Augmentation
		Jaw Augmentation
2: Imaging the Postoperative Orbit
	2.1	 Eyelid Weights
		2.1.1	 Discussion
	2.2	 Palpebral Springs
		2.2.1	 Discussion
	2.3	 Frontalis Suspension Ptosis Repair
		2.3.1	 Discussion
	2.4	 Orbital Wall Reconstruction and Augmentation
		2.4.1	 Discussion
	2.5	 Orbital Decompression and Expansion for Dysthyroid Orbitopathy
		2.5.1	 Discussion
	2.6	 Dacryocystorhinostomy and Nasolacrimal Duct Stents
		2.6.1	 Discussion
	2.7	 Strabismus Surgery
		2.7.1	 Discussion
	2.8	 Glaucoma Surgery
		2.8.1	 Discussion
	2.9	 Scleral Buckles
		2.9.1	 Discussion
	2.10	 Keratoprostheses
		2.10.1	 Discussion
	2.11	 Intraocular Lens Implants
		2.11.1	 Discussion
	2.12	 Surgical Aphakia
		2.12.1	 Discussion
	2.13	 Pneumatic Retinopexy
		2.13.1	 Discussion
	2.14	 Intraocular Silicone Oil
		2.14.1	 Discussion
	2.15	 Evisceration, Enucleation, and Globe Prostheses
		2.15.1	 Discussion
	2.16	 Orbital Tissue Expanders
		2.16.1	 Discussion
	2.17	 Orbital Exenteration
		2.17.1	 Discussion
	2.18	 Orbital Radiation Therapy Fiducial Markers
		2.18.1	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Eyelid Weights
		Palpebral Spring
		Frontalis Suspension Ptosis Repair
		Orbital Wall Reconstruction and Augmentation
		Orbital Decompression for Dysthyroid Orbitopathy
		Dacryocystorhinostomy and Nasolacrimal Duct Stents
		Strabismus Surgery
		Glaucoma Surgery
		Scleral Buckles
		Intraocular Lens Implants
		Surgical Aphakia
		Pneumatic Retinopexy
		Intraocular Silicone Oil
		Evisceration, Enucleation, and Globe Prostheses
		Orbital Tissue Expanders
		Orbital Exenteration
		Orbital Radiation Therapy Fiducial Markers
3: Imaging the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity
	3.1	 Nasal Fracture Reconstruction (Posttraumatic Rhinoplasty)
		3.1.1	 Discussion
	3.2	 Septoplasty
		3.2.1	 Discussion
	3.3	 Nasal Septal Button Prosthesis
		3.3.1	 Discussion
	3.4	 Inferior Turbinate Outfracture and Reduction
		3.4.1	 Discussion
	3.5	 Nasal Packing Material
		3.5.1	 Discussion
	3.6	 Rhinectomy
		3.6.1	 Discussion
	3.7	 Sinus Lift Procedure
		3.7.1	 Discussion
	3.8	 Caldwell-Luc Procedure
		3.8.1	 Discussion
	3.9	 External Ethmoidectomy
		3.9.1	 Discussion
	3.10	 Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
		3.10.1	 Discussion
	3.11	 FESS Complications
		3.11.1	 Discussion
		3.11.2	 Discussion
		3.11.3	 Discussion
		3.11.4	 Discussion
		3.11.5	 Discussion
		3.11.6	 Discussion
		3.11.7	 Discussion
		3.11.8	 Discussion
		3.11.9	 Discussion
		3.11.10 Discussion
		3.11.11 Discussion
	3.12	 Osteoplastic Flap with Frontal Sinus Obliteration
		3.12.1	 Discussion
	3.13	 Frontal Sinus Cranialization
		3.13.1	 Discussion
	3.14	 Paranasal Sinus Stents
		3.14.1	 Discussion
	3.15	 Frontal Sinus Trephination
		3.15.1	 Discussion
	3.16	 Decompression, Enucleation, and Ostectomy
		3.16.1	 Discussion
	3.17	 Maxillectomy and Palatectomy
		3.17.1	 Discussion
	3.18	 Maxillary Swing
		3.18.1	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Nasal Fracture Reconstruction (Posttraumatic Rhinoplasty)
		Nasal Septal Button Prosthesis
		Inferior Turbinate Outfracture and Reduction
		Nasal Packing Material
		Sinus Lift
		Caldwell-Luc Procedure
		External Ethmoidectomy
		Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
		FESS Complications
		Osteoplastic Flap with Frontal Sinus Obliteration
		Frontal Sinus Cranialization
		Paranasal Sinus Stents
		Frontal Sinus Trephination
		Decompression, Enucleation, and Ostectomy
		Maxillectomy and Palatectomy
		Maxillary Swing
4: Imaging the Postoperative Scalp and Cranium
	4.1	 Occipital Nerve Stimulator
		4.1.1	 Discussion
	4.2	 Tissue Expander
		4.2.1	 Discussion
	4.3	 Temporal Fossa Implants
		4.3.1	 Discussion
	4.4	 Mohs Micrographic Surgery and Skin Grafting
		4.4.1	 Discussion
	4.5	 Rotational Galeal Flap Scalp Reconstruction
		4.5.1	 Discussion
	4.6	 Free Flap Reconstruction of Complex Scalp Defects
		4.6.1	 Discussion
	4.7	 Scalp Tumor Recurrence
		4.7.1	 Discussion
	4.8	 Burr Holes
		4.8.1	 Discussion
	4.9	 Craniotomy
		4.9.1	 Discussion
	4.10	 Cranioplasty
		4.10.1	 Discussion
	4.11	 Autocranioplasty
		4.11.1	 Discussion
	4.12	 Craniectomy, the Meningogaleal Complex, and Suboccipital Craniectomy
		4.12.1	 Discussion
	4.13	 Cranial Vault Surgical Remodeling for Craniosynostosis
	4.14	 Cranial Vault Encephalocele Repair
		4.14.1	 Discussion
	4.15	 Box Osteotomy
	4.16	 Absorbable Hemostatic Agents
		4.16.1	 Discussion
	4.17	 Duraplasty and Sealant Agents
		4.17.1	 Discussion
	4.18	 Intracranial Pressure Monitors
		4.18.1	 Discussion
	4.19	 Subdural Drainage Catheters
		4.19.1	 Discussion
	4.20	 Cranial Surgery Complications
		4.20.1	 Tension Pneumocephalus
		4.20.2	 Entered Frontal Sinus, Entered Orbit, and Air Leak
		4.20.3	 Postoperative Hemorrhage and Hematomas
		4.20.4	 Postoperative Hygromas and Effusions
		4.20.5	 Pseudomeningoceles
		4.20.6	 Pseudoaneurysm
		4.20.7	 Postoperative Infection
		4.20.8	 Textiloma
		4.20.9	 Sunken Skin Flap Syndrome
		4.20.10 External Brain Herniation
		4.20.11 Bone Flap Resorption
	Further Reading
		Occipital Nerve Stimulator
		Tissue Expander
		Temporal Fossa Implant
		Mohs Micrographic Surgery and Skin Grafting
		Rotational Galeal Flap Scalp Reconstruction
		Free Flap Reconstruction of Complex Scalp Defects
		Scalp Tumor Recurrence
		Box Osteotomy
		Absorbable Hemostatic Agents
		Duraplasty and Sealant Agents
		Burr Holes
		Craniectomy and the Meningogaleal Complex
		Cranial Vault Reconstruction for Craniosynostosis
		Cranial Vault Encephalocele Repair
		Subdural Drainage Catheters
		Intracranial Pressure Monitor
		Cranial Surgery Complications
5: Imaging the Intraoperative and Postoperative Brain
	5.1	 Intraoperative MRI
		5.1.1	 Discussion
	5.2	 Brain Tumor Surgery and Treatment Accessories
		5.2.1	 Stereotactic Biopsy	 Discussion
		5.2.2	 Resection Cavities	 Discussion
		5.2.3	 Ommaya Reservoirs	 Discussion
		5.2.4	 Chemotherapy Wafers	 Discussion
		5.2.5	 Brachytherapy Seeds	 Discussion
		5.2.6	 GliaSite Radiation Therapy System	 Discussion
	5.3	 Neurodegenerative, Neuropsychiatric, and Epilepsy Surgery
		5.3.1	 Prefrontal Lobotomy	 Discussion
		5.3.2	 Pallidotomy	 Discussion
		5.3.3	 Cingulotomy	 Discussion
		5.3.4	 Subcaudate Tractotomy and Limbic Leucotomy	 Discussion	 Thalamotomy
		5.3.5	 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)	 Discussion
		5.3.6	 Epidural Motor Cortex Stimulator	 Discussion
		5.3.7	 Neural Interface System (BrainGate)	 Discussion
		5.3.8	 Microcatheter Subthalamic Infusion of Glutamate Decarboxylase	 Discussion
		5.3.9	 Seizure Monitoring Electrodes and NeuroPace	 Discussion
		5.3.10	 Corticectomy	 Discussion
		5.3.11	 Selective Epilepsy Disconnection Surgery and Quadrantectomy	 Discussion
		5.3.12	 Hypothalamic Hamartoma Thermal Ablation	 Discussion
		5.3.13	 Callosotomy	 Discussion
		5.3.14	 Anterior Temporal Lobectomy	 Discussion
		5.3.15	 Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy	 Discussion
		5.3.16	 Hemispherectomy	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Intraoperative MRI
		Brain Tumor Surgery
		Stereotactic Biopsy
		Resection Cavities
		Surgically-Induced Parenchyma Injury
		Postoperative Hemorrhagic Lesions
		Enhancing Lesions in the Surgical Bed Region and Beyond
		Ommaya Reservoirs
		Chemotherapy Wafers
		Brachytherapy Seeds
		GliaSite Radiation Therapy System
		Neurodegenerative, Neuropsychiatric, and Epilepsy Surgery
		Prefrontal Lobotomy
		Subcaudate Tractotomy and Limbic Leucotomy
		Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
		Epidural Motor Cortex Stimulator
		Neural Interface System (BrainGate)
		Microcatheter Subthalamic Infusion of Glutamate Decarboxylase
		Seizure Monitoring Electrodes and NeuroPace
		Selective Disconnection
		Hypothalamic Hamartoma Thermal Ablation
		Anterior Temporal Lobectomy
		Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy
6: Imaging of Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts, Drains, and Diversion Techniques
	6.1	 Types of Procedures
		6.1.1	 External Ventricular Drainage	 Discussion
		6.1.2	 Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.3	 Atypical Ventricular Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.4	 Ventriculosubgaleal Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.5	 Ventriculo-cisternal (Torkildsen) Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.6	 Percutaneously Accessed Cerebrospinal Fluid Reservoirs	 Discussion
		6.1.7	 Subdural-Peritoneal Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.8	 Cystoperitoneal and Cystoventriculostomy Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.9	 Syringosubarachnoid and Syringopleural Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.10	 Lumboperitoneal Shunts	 Discussion
		6.1.11	 Third Ventriculocisternostomy	 Discussion
		6.1.12	 Endoscopic Septum Pellucidum and ­Intraventricular Cyst Fenestration	 Discussion
		6.1.13	 Aqueductoplasty	 Discussion
		6.1.14	 Endoscopic Choroid Plexus Cauterization	 Discussion
	6.2	 Complications Related to Cerebrospinal Fluid Diversion Surgeries
		6.2.1	 Corpus Callosum Changes Secondary to Shunt Catheterization	 Discussion
		6.2.2	 Shunt-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage	 Discussion
		6.2.3	 Intraventricular Fat Migration	 Discussion
		6.2.4	 MRI-Induced Programmable Valve Setting Alteration	 Discussion
		6.2.5	 Ventricular Loculations and Isolated Ventricles	 Discussion
		6.2.6	 Slit Ventricle Syndrome	 Discussion
		6.2.7	 Chronic Overshunting and Associated Findings	 Discussion
		6.2.8	 Shunt-Associated Infections	 Discussion
		6.2.9	 Shunt Malposition and Migration	 Discussion
		6.2.10	 Shunt Catheter Mechanical Failure	 Discussion
		6.2.11	 Intraparenchymal Pericatheter Cysts and Interstitial Cerebrospinal Fluid	 Discussion
		6.2.12	 Peritoneal Pseudocysts	 Discussion
		6.2.13	 Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Syndrome	 Discussion
		6.2.14	 Tumor Seeding	 Discussion
		6.2.15	 Shunt Catheter Calcification	 Discussion
		6.2.16	 Pulmonary Embolism from Ventriculoatrial Shunting	 Discussion
		6.2.17	 Chiari Decompression Surgery and Associated Complications	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Types of Procedures
		External Ventricular Drainage
		Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts
		Atypical Ventricular Shunts
		Ventriculosubgaleal Shunts
		Ventriculo-Cisternal (Torkildsen) Shunts
		Percutaneously Accessed Cerebrospinal Fluid Reservoirs
		Subdural-Peritoneal Shunts
		Cystoperitoneal and Cystoventriculostomy Shunts
		Syringosubarachnoid and Syringopleural Shunts
		Lumboperitoneal Shunt
		Third Ventriculostomy
		Endoscopic Septum Pellucidum and Cyst Fenestration
		Endoscopic Choroid Plexus Cauterization
		Fourth Ventricular Stenting
		Corpus Callosum Changes Secondary to Shunt Catheterization
		Shunt-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage and Gliosis
		Intraventricular Fat Migration
		MRI-Induced Programmable Valve Setting Alteration
		Ventricular Loculations and Isolated Ventricles
		Slit Ventricle Syndrome
		Chronic Overshunting and Associated Findings
		Shunt-Associated Infections
		Shunt Malposition and Migration
		Shunt Catheter Disconnection and Retained Fragments
		Intraparenchymal Pericatheter Cysts and Interstitial Cerebrospinal Fluid
		Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Syndrome
		Tumor Seeding
		Shunt Catheter Calcifications
		Pulmonary Embolism from Ventriculoatrial Shunting
		Chiari Decompression Surgery and Associated Complications
7: Imaging of the Postoperative Skull Base and Cerebellopontine Angle
	7.1	 Anterior Craniofacial Resection
		7.1.1	 Discussion
	7.2	 Decompression of Cystic Craniopharyngiomas
		7.2.1	 Discussion
	7.3	 Transsphenoidal Tumor Resection
		7.3.1	 Discussion
	7.4	 Transsphenoidal Resection Complications
		7.4.1	 Discussion
	7.5	 Middle Cranial Fossa Reconstruction
		7.5.1	 Discussion
	7.6	 Surgical Approaches for Vestibular Schwannoma Resection
		7.6.1	 Discussion
	7.7	 Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas
		7.7.1	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Anterior Craniofacial Resection
		Decompression of Cystic Sellar/Suprasellar Lesions
		Transsphenoidal Resection
		Transsphenoidal Resection Complications
		Middle Cranial Fossa Reconstruction
		Surgical Approaches for Vestibular Schwannoma Resection
		Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas
8: Imaging of the Postoperative Ear and Temporal Bone
	8.1	 Osseointegrated Bone Conduction Hearing Implants
		8.1.1	 Discussion
	8.2	 Auriculectomy
		8.2.1	 Discussion
	8.3	 Auricular Reconstruction
		8.3.1	 Discussion
	8.4	 Canaloplasty and Meatoplasty
		8.4.1	 Discussion
	8.5	 Atresiaplasty
		8.5.1	 Discussion
	8.6	 Myringotomy and Tympanostomy Tubes
		8.6.1	 Discussion
	8.7	 Myringoplasty and Tympanoplasty
		8.7.1	 Discussion
	8.8	 Ossicular Interposition
		8.8.1	 Discussion
	8.9	 Ossicular Reconstruction with a Synthetic Prosthesis: Partial Ossicular Reconstruction Prosthesis (PORP), Total Ossicular Reconstruction Prosthesis (TORP), Incudostapedial Joint Reconstruction Prosthesis, and Vibrating Ossicular Reconstruct
		8.9.1	 Discussion
	8.10	 Stapedectomy, Stapedotomy, and Stapes Prosthesis
		8.10.1	 Discussion
	8.11	 Ossicular Prosthesis Complications
		8.11.1	 Discussion
	8.12	 Atticotomy
		8.12.1	 Discussion
	8.13	 Eustachian Tube Occlusion Procedures
		8.13.1	 Discussion
	8.14	 Mastoidectomy and Mastoid Obliteration
		8.14.1	 Discussion
	8.15	 Mastoidectomy Complications
		8.15.1	 Discussion
	8.16	 Temporal Bone Resection
		8.16.1	 Discussion
	8.17	 Cochlear Implants
		8.17.1	 Discussion
	8.18	 Cochlear Implant Complications
		8.18.1	 Discussion
	8.19	 Auditory Brainstem Stimulator
		8.19.1	 Discussion
	8.20	 Repair of Perilymphatic Fistula
		8.20.1	 Discussion
	8.21	 Endolymphatic Sac Decompression and Shunting
		8.21.1	 Discussion
	8.22	 Labyrinthectomy
		8.22.1	 Discussion
	8.23	 Vestibular Nerve Section
		8.23.1	 Discussion
	8.24	 Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Repair
		8.24.1	 Discussion
	8.25	 Tube Drainage of Petrous Apex Cholesterol Granuloma
		8.25.1	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		BAHA Device
		Auricular Reconstruction
		Canaloplasty and Meatoplasty
		Myringotomy and Tympanostomy Tubes
		Myringoplasty and Tympanoplasty
		Incus Interposition
		Stapedectomy, Stapedotomy, and Stapes Prosthesis
		Ossicular Prosthesis Complications
		Transcanal Atticotomy
		Eustachian Tube Occlusion Procedures
		Mastoidectomy and Mastoid Obliteration
		Mastoidectomy Complications
		Lateral Temporal Bone Resection
		Cochlear Implants
		Cochlear Implant Complications
		Auditory Brainstem Stimulator
		Repair of Perilymphatic Fistula
		Endolymphatic Sac Decompression and Shunting
		Vestibular Nerve Sectioning
		Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Repair
		Tube Drainage of Cholesterol Cysts
9: Imaging of Orthognathic, Maxillofacial, and Temporomandibular Joint Surgery
	9.1	 Vertical Ramus Osteotomy
		9.1.1	 Discussion
	9.2	 Sagittal Split Osteotomy
		9.2.1	 Discussion
	9.3	 Genioplasty
		9.3.1	 Discussion
	9.4	 Mandibular Angle Augmentation
		9.4.1	 Discussion
	9.5	 Mandibular Distraction
		9.5.1	 Discussion
	9.6	 LeFort I Osteotomy
		9.6.1	 Discussion
	9.7	 LeFort III Osteotomy
		9.7.1	 Discussion
	9.8	 Fixation of Mandible Fractures
		9.8.1	 Discussion
	9.9	 Mandibulotomy
		9.9.1	 Discussion
	9.10	 Enucleation
		9.10.1	 Discussion
	9.11	 Cyst Decompression
		9.11.1	 Discussion
	9.12	 Coronoidectomy
		9.12.1	 Discussion
	9.13	 Mandibulectomy and Mandibular Reconstruction
		9.13.1	 Discussion
	9.14	 Eminectomy and Meniscal Plication
		9.14.1	 Discussion
	9.15	 Temporomandibular Joint Discectomy
		9.15.1	 Discussion
	9.16	 Temporomandibular Joint Costochondral Graft Reconstruction
		9.16.1	 Discussion
	9.17	 Temporomandibular Joint Disc Replacement Implants
		9.17.1	 Discussion
	9.18	 Temporomandibular Joint Hemiarthroplasty
		9.18.1	 Discussion
	9.19	 Temporomandibular Total Joint Arthroplasty
		9.19.1	 Discussion
	9.20	 Temporomandibular Joint Disc Implant and Prosthesis Failure
		9.20.1	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Vertical Ramus Osteotomy
		Sagittal Split Osteotomy
		Mandibular Angle Augmentation
		Mandibular Distraction
		Lefort I Surgery
		Lefort III Surgery
		Fixation of Mandible Fractures
		Cyst Decompression
		Mandibulectomy and Mandibular Reconstruction
		Eminectomy and Meniscal Plication
		Temporomandibular Joint Discectomy
		Temporomandibular Joint Costochondral Graft Reconstruction
		Temporomandibular Joint Disc Replacement Implants
		Temporomandibular Joint Hemiarthroplasty
		Temporomandibular Total Joint Arthroplasty
		Temporomandibular Joint Disc Implant and Prosthesis Failure
10: Imaging the Postoperative Neck
	10.1	 Reconstruction Flaps
		10.1.1 Discussion
	10.2	 Neck Dissection
		10.2.1 Discussion
	10.3	 Parotidectomy
		10.3.1 Discussion
	10.4	 Salivary Duct Stenting and Endoscopic Stone Removal
		10.4.1 Discussion
	10.5	 Facial Reanimation
		10.5.1 Discussion
	10.6	 Oral Cavity Tumor Resection and Reconstruction
		10.6.1 Discussion
	10.7	 Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
		10.7.1 Discussion
	10.8	 Transoral Robotic Surgery
		10.8.1 Discussion
	10.9	 Sistrunk Procedure
		10.9.1 Discussion
	10.10	 Laryngectomy
		10.10.1 Discussion
	10.11	 Tracheoesophageal Puncture and Voice Prostheses
		10.11.1 Discussion
	10.12	 Montgomery T-Tubes
		10.12.1 Discussion
	10.13	 Salivary Bypass Stent
		10.13.1 Discussion
	10.14	 Laryngeal Stents
		10.14.1 Discussion
	10.15	 Laryngoplasty and Vocal Fold Injection
		10.15.1 Discussion
	10.16	 Arytenoid Adduction
		10.16.1 Discussion
	10.17	 Arytenoidectomy
		10.17.1 Discussion
	10.18	 Laryngeal Cartilage Remodeling
		10.18.1 Discussion
	10.19	 Tracheotomy
		10.19.1 Discussion
	10.20	 Thyroidectomy
		10.20.1 Discussion
	10.21	 Neck Exploration and Parathyroidectomy
		10.21.1 Discussion
	10.22	 Brachytherapy
		10.22.1 Discussion
	10.23	 Vagal Nerve Stimulation
		10.23.1 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Reconstruction Flaps
		Facial Reanimation
		Oral Cavity Tumor Resection and Reconstruction
		Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
		Transoral Robotic Surgery
		Neck Dissection
		Salivary Duct Stenting
		Tracheoesophageal Puncture and Voice Prostheses
		Montgomery T-Tubes
		Salivary Bypass Stents
		Laryngeal Stents
		Laryngoplasty and Vocal Fold Injection
		Arytenoid Adduction
		Laryngeal Cartilage Remodeling
		Neck Exploration and Parathyroidectomy
		Sistrunk Procedure
		Vagal Nerve Stimulation
11: Imaging of Postoperative Spine
	11.1	 Overview
	11.2	 Spine Decompression
		11.2.1	 Laminotomy and Foraminotomy	 Discussion
		11.2.2	 Laminectomy	 Discussion
		11.2.3	 Facetectomy	 Discussion
		11.2.4	 Microdiscectomy	 Discussion
		11.2.5	 Laminoplasty	 Discussion
		11.2.6	 Vertebrectomy	 Discussion
		11.2.7	 Cordectomy	 Discussion
	11.3	 Spine Stabilization and Fusion
		11.3.1	 Halo and Traction Devices	 Discussion
		11.3.2	 Bone Graft Materials	 Discussion
		11.3.3	 Implantable Bone Stimulators	 Discussion
		11.3.4	 Odontoid Screw Fixation	 Discussion
		11.3.5	 Occipitocervical Fusion	 Discussion
		11.3.6	 Anterior Cervical Fusion	 Discussion
		11.3.7	 Anterior Approach Thoracolumbar Spine Stabilization Devices	 Discussion
		11.3.8	 Posterior Fusion	 Discussion
		11.3.9	 Scoliosis Rods	 Discussion
		11.3.10 Vertebral Stapling	 Discussion
		11.3.11 Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR)	 Discussion
		11.3.12 Interbody Fusion	 Discussion
	11.4	 Dynamic Stabilization Devices of the Spine
		11.4.1	 Total Disc Replacement	 Discussion
		11.4.2	 Nucleus Pulposus Replacement	 Discussion
		11.4.3	 Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Devices	 Discussion
		11.4.4	 Dynamic Facet Replacement	 Discussion
		11.4.5	 Dynamic Rods	 Discussion
	11.5	 Failed Back Surgery Syndrome and Related Spine Surgery Complications
		11.5.1	 Overview
		11.5.2	 Hardware Malpositioning and Migration	 Discussion
		11.5.3	 Hardware Loosening and Pseudarthrosis	 Discussion
		11.5.4	 Hardware and Periprosthetic Fractures	 Discussion
		11.5.5	 Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak	 Discussion
		11.5.6	 Postoperative Seromas and Hematomas	 Discussion
		11.5.7	 Surgical Site Infections	 Discussion
		11.5.8	 Postoperative Neuritis	 Discussion
		11.5.9	 Arachnoiditis	 Discussion
		11.5.10 Residual/Recurrent Disc Material Versus Epidural Scar	 Discussion
		11.5.11 Postoperative Synovial Cyst	 Discussion
		11.5.12 Residual/Recurrent Tumors	 Discussion
		11.5.13 Inclusion Cysts	 Discussion
		11.5.14 Retained Bone Fragments and New Bone Formation	 Discussion
		11.5.15 Retained Surgical Tools	 Discussion
		11.5.16 Gossypiboma	 Discussion
		11.5.17 Adjacent Segment Degenerative Disease	 Discussion
		11.5.18 Postoperative Deformity	 Discussion
	11.6	 Intrathecal Spinal Infusion Pump
		11.6.1	 Discussion
	11.7	 Spinal Cord Stimulators
		11.7.1	 Discussion
	11.8	 Filum Terminale Sectioning
		11.8.1	 Discussion
	11.9	 Percutaneous Spine Treatments
		11.9.1	 Vertebral Augmentation	 Discussion
		11.9.2	 Kiva Device	 Discussion
		11.9.3	 Sacroplasty	 Discussion
		11.9.4	 Percutaneous Interbody Fusion	 Discussion
		11.9.5	 CT-Guided Epidural Blood Patch	 Discussion
		11.9.6	 Percutaneous Perineural Cyst Decompression	 Discussion
	Further Reading
		Spine Decompression: Laminotomy and Foraminotomy
		Spine Stabilization and Fusion: Halo and Traction Devices
		Bone Graft Materials
		Implantable Bone Stimulators
		Odontoid Screw Fixation
		Anterior Cervical Fusion
		Anterior Approach Thoracolumbar Spine Stabilization Devices
		Posterior Fusion
		Occiptiocervical Fusion
		Scoliosis Rods
		Vertebral Stapling
		Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR)
		Interbody Fusion
		Dynamic Stabilization and Miscellaneous Devices of the Spine: Total Disc Replacement
		Nucleus Pulposus Replacement
		Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Devices
		Dynamic Facet Replacement
		Dynamic Rods
		Failed Back Surgery Syndrome and Related Complications
		Hardware Malpositioning and Migration
		Hardware Loosening and Pseudarthrosis
		Hardware and Periprosthetic Fractures
		Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak
		Seromas and Hematomas
		Postoperative Infection
		Postoperative Neuritis
		Residual/Recurrent Disc Material Versus Epidural Scar
		Postoperative Synovial Cyst
		Residual/Recurrent Tumors
		Inclusion Cysts
		Retained Bone Fragments and New Bone Formation
		Retained Surgical Tools
		Adjacent Segment Degenerative Disease
		Postoperative Deformity
		Intrathecal Spinal Infusion Pump
		Spinal Cord Stimulators
		Filum Terminale Sectioning
		Percutaneous Spine Treatments: Vertebral Augmentation
		Kiva Device
		Percutaneous Spine Fusion
		CT-Guided Epidural Blood Patch
		Percutaneous Perineural Cyst Decompression
12: Imaging of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
	12.1	 Vascular Surgery
		12.1.1  Direct Extracranial-Intracranial Revascularization	 Discussion
		12.1.2  Indirect Extracranial-Intracranial Revascularization	 Discussion
		12.1.3	 Intracranial Aneurysm Wrapping	 Discussion
		12.1.4	 Aneurysm Clipping and Hemostatic Ligation Clips	 Discussion
		12.1.5	 Vascular Malformation Surgery
		12.1.6	 Microvascular Decompression/Jannetta Procedure	 Discussion
		12.1.7	 Carotid Endarterectomy	 Discussion
		12.1.8	 Carotid Body Stimulation	 Discussion
		12.1.9	 Adjustable Vascular Clamp	 Discussion
		12.1.10 Reconstruction of the Great Vessels	 Discussion
	12.2	 Endovascular Surgery
		12.2.1	 General Imaging Considerations Following Endovascular Cerebrovascular Procedures
		12.2.2	 Endovascular Treatment for Aneurysms
		12.2.3	 Endovascular Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas
		12.2.4	 Endovascular Deconstructive Treatment for Vessel Sacrifice
		12.2.5	 Preoperative Embolization of Neoplasms
		12.2.6	 Endovascular Sclerotherapy for Head and Neck Lymphatic Malformations
		12.2.7	 Endovascular Reconstructive Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Using Intra-arterial Thrombolysis or Embolectomy
		12.2.8	 Endovascular Reconstruction for Intracranial Cerebrovascular Steno-­occlusive Lesions
		12.2.9	 Angioplasty and Intra-arterial Spasmolysis for Vasospasm
		12.2.10 Endovascular Stent Reconstructive Treatment for Extracranial Cerebrovascular Occlusive Disease
		12.2.11 Endovascular Reconstructive Treatment for Active Extracranial Hemorrhage or Pseudoaneurysm
		12.2.12 Endovascular Treatment for Intracranial Venous Stenosis and Occlusion
		12.2.13 Complications Related to Endovascular Procedures
	Further Reading
		Vascular Surgery
		Direct Extracranial-Intracranial Revascularization
		Indirect Extracranial-Intracranial Revascularization
		Aneurysm and Hemostatic Ligation Clips
		Intracranial Aneurysm Muscle Wrap
		Vascular Malformation Surgery
		Microvascular Decompression/Jannetta Procedure
		Carotid Endarterectomy
		Carotid Body Stimulation
		Adjustable Vascular Clamp
		Reconstruction of the Great Vessels
		Endovascular Surgery
		General Imaging Considerations Following Endovascular Cerebrovascular Procedures
		Endovascular Treatment for Aneurysms
		Endovascular Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas
		Endovascular Deconstructive Treatment for Vessel Sacrifice
		Preoperative Embolization of Neoplasms
		Endovascular Sclerotherapy for Head and Neck Lymphatic Malformations
		Endovascular Reconstruction for Intracranial Cerebrovascular Steno-occlusive Lesions
		Angioplasty and Intra-arterial Spasmolysis for Vasospasm
		Endovascular Stent Reconstructive Treatment for Extracranial Cerebrovascular Occlusive Disease
		Endovascular Reconstructive Treatment for Active Extracranial Hemorrhage or Pseudoaneurysm
		Endovascular Treatment for Intracranial Venous Stenosis and Occlusion
		Complications Related to Endovascular Procedures
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Atlas of Postsurgical

Daniel Thomas Ginat
Per-Lennart A. Westesson


Imaging of the Brain,
Spine, Head, and Neck

Second Edition

Page 2

Atlas of Postsurgical Neuroradiology

Page 358


Further Reading

Anterior Craniofacial Resection

Cantù G, Solero CL, Mariani L, Salvatori P, Mattavelli
F, Pizzi N, Riggio E (1999) Anterior craniofacial
resection for malignant ethmoid tumors–a series of 91
patients. Head Neck 21(3):185–191

Cantù G, Riccio S, Bimbi G, Squadrelli M, Colombo S,
Compan A, Rossi M, Pompilio M, Solero CL (2006)
Craniofacial resection for malignant tumours involv-
ing the anterior skull base. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol

Langstein HN, Chang DW, Robb GL (2001) Coverage of
skull base defects. Clin Plast Surg 28(2):375–387, x

Moyer JS, Chepeha DB, Teknos TN (2004) Contemporary
skull base reconstruction. Curr Opin Otolaryngol
Head Neck Surg 12(4):294–299

Pitman KT, Costantino PD, Lassen LF (1995) Sinonasal
undifferentiated carcinoma: current trends in treat-
ment. Skull Base Surg 5(4):269–272

Scher RL, Cantrell RW (1992) Anterior skull base recon-
struction with the pericranial flap after craniofacial
resection. Ear Nose Throat J 71(5):210–212, 215–217

Schuster JJ, Phillips CD, Levine PA. MR of esthesioneu-
roblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) and appearance
after craniofacial resection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol

Decompression of Cystic Sellar/
Suprasellar Lesions

al-Wahhabi B, Choudhury AR, al-Moutaery KR, Aabed M,
Faqeeh A (1993) Giant craniopharyngioma with blind-
ness reversed by surgery. Childs Nerv Syst 9(5):292–294

Ohmori K, Collins J, Fukushima T (2007)
Craniopharyngiomas in children. Pediatr Neurosurg

Transsphenoidal Resection

Bonneville F, Cattin F, Marsot-Dupuch K, Dormont
D, Bonneville JF, Chiras J (2006) T1 signal hyper-
intensity in the sellar region: spectrum of findings.
Radiographics 26(1):93–113

Kremer P, Forsting M, Ranaei G, Wüster C, Hamer J,
Sartor K, Kunze S (2002) Magnetic resonance imag-
ing after transsphenoidal surgery of clinically non-
functional pituitary macroadenomas and its impact
on detecting residual adenoma. Acta Neurochir

Rajaraman V, Schulder M (1999) Postoperative MRI
appearance after transsphenoidal pituitary tumor
resection. Surg Neurol 52(6):592–598; discussion

Romano A, Chibbaro S, Marsella M, Oretti G, Spiriev
T, Iaccarino C, Servadei F (2010) Combined endo-
scopic transsphenoidal-transventricular approach for
resection of a giant pituitary macroadenoma. World
Neurosurg 74(1):161–164

Steiner E, Knosp E, Herold CJ, Kramer J, Stiglbauer R,
Staniszewski K, Imhof H (1992) Pituitary adenomas:
findings of postoperative MR imaging. Radiology

Yoon PH, Kim DI, Jeon P, Lee SI, Lee SK, Kim SH
(2001) Pituitary adenomas: early postoperative MR
imaging after transsphenoidal resection. AJNR Am
J Neuroradiol 22(6): 1097–1104

Transsphenoidal Resection

Ahmad FU, Pandey P, Mahapatra AK (2005) Post opera-
tive ‘pituitary apoplexy’ in giant pituitary adenomas: a
series of cases. Neurol India 53(3):326–328

Bonneville F, Cattin F, Marsot-Dupuch K, Dormont
D, Bonneville JF, Chiras J (2006) T1 signal hyper-
intensity in the sellar region: spectrum of findings.
Radiographics 26(1):93–113

Buchinsky FJ, Gennarelli TA, Strome SE, Deschler DG,
Hayden RE (2001) Sphenoid sinus mucocele: a rare
complication of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Ear
Nose Throat J 80:886–888

Cappabianca P, Cavallo LM, Colao A, de Divitiis
E. Surgical complications associated with the endo-
scopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for pitu-
itary adenomas. J Neurosurg. 2002;97(2):293–298.

Connor SE (2010) Imaging of skull-base cephalocoeles and
cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Clin Radiol 65(10): 832–841

Crowley RW, Dumont AS, Jane JA Jr (2009) Bilateral intra-
cavernous carotid artery pseudoaneurysms as a result
of sellar reconstruction during the transsphenoidal
resection of a pituitary macroadenoma: case report.
Minim Invasive Neurosurg 52(1):44–48

Goel A, Deogaonkar M, Desai K (1995) Fatal postopera-
tive ‘pituitary apoplexy’: its cause and management.
Br J Neurosurg 9(1):37–40

Hald JK, Nakstad PH, Kollevold T, Bakke SJ, Skalpe
IO (1992) MR imaging of pituitary macroadenomas
before and after transsphenoidal surgery. Acta Radiol

Kadyrov NA, Friedman JA, Nichols DA, Cohen-Gadol
AA, Link MJ, Piepgras DG (2002) Endovascular
treatment of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneu-
rysm following transsphenoidal surgery. Case report
J Neurosurg 96(3):624–627

Kessler L, Legaludec V, Dietemann JL, Maitrot D, Pinget M
(1999) Sphenoidal sinus mucocele after transsphenoidal
surgery for acromegaly. Neurosurg Rev 22(4): 222–225

La Fata V, McLean N, Wise SK, DelGaudio JM, Hudgins
PA (2008) CSF leaks: correlation of high-resolution
CT and multiplanar reformations with intraoperative

7 Imaging of the Postoperative Skull Base and Cerebellopontine Angle

Page 359


endoscopic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(3):

Lloyd KM, DelGaudio JM, Hudgins PA (2008) Imaging
of skull base cerebrospinal fluid leaks in adults.
Radiology 248(3):725–736

Puri AS, Zada G, Zarzour H, Laws E, Frerichs K (2012)
Cerebral vasospasm after transsphenoidal resection of
pituitary adenomas: report of 3 cases and review of the
literature. Neurosurgery 71:173–180

Raymond J, Hardy J, Czepko R, Roy D (1997) Arterial
injuries in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary ade-
noma; the role of angiography and endovascular treat-
ment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 18(4):655–665

Saeki N, Hoshi S, Sunada S, Sunami K, Murai H, Kubota
M, Tatsuno I, Iuchi T, Yamaura A (2002) Correlation
of high signal intensity of the pituitary stalk in mac-
roadenoma and postoperative diabetes insipidus.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23(5):822–827

Steiner E, Knosp E, Herold CJ, Kramer J, Stiglbauer R,
Staniszewski K, Imhof H (1992) Pituitary adenomas:
findings of postoperative MR imaging. Radiology

Steiner E, Math G, Knosp E, Mostbeck G, Kramer J,
Herold CJ (1994) MR-appearance of the pituitary
gland before and after resection of pituitary macroad-
enomas. Clin Radiol 49(8):524–530

Taylor SL, Tyrrell JB, Wilson CB (1995) Delayed onset of
hyponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery for pitu-
itary adenomas. Neurosurgery 37(4):649–653; discus-
sion 653–654

van Aken MO, de Marie S, van der Lely AJ, Singh R, van
den Berge JH, Poublon RM, Fokkens WJ, Lamberts
SW, de Herder WW. Risk factors for meningitis
after transsphenoidal surgery. Clin Infect Dis 1997

Yoon PH, Kim DI, Jeon P, Lee SI, Lee SK, Kim SH
(2001) Pituitary adenomas: early postoperative MR
imaging after transsphenoidal resection. AJNR Am
J Neuroradiol 22(6):1097–1104

Zada G, Du R, Laws ER Jr (2011) Defining the “edge of
the envelope”: patient selection in treating complex
sellar-based neoplasms via transsphenoidal versus
open craniotomy. J Neurosurg 114(2):286–300

Zona G, Testa V, Sbaffi PF, Spaziante R (2002)
Transsphenoidal treatment of empty sella by means
of a silastic coil: technical note. Neurosurgery 51(5):
1299–1303; discussion 1303

Middle Cranial Fossa Reconstruction

Chang DW, Langstein HN, Gupta A, De Monte F, Do KA,
Wang X, Robb G (2001) Reconstructive management of
cranial base defects after tumor ablation. Plast Reconstr
Surg 107(6):1346–1355; discussion 1356–1357

Jacobsen N, Mills R (2006) Management of stenosis
and acquired atresia of the external auditory meatus.
J Laryngol Otol 120(4):266–271

Lipira A, Limbrick D, Haughey B, Custer P, Chicoine
MR (2009) Titanium mesh reconstruction to main-
tain scalp contour after temporalis musculofascial flap
reconstruction of the floor of the middle cranial fossa:
a technical note and report of two cases. Skull Base

Surgical Approaches for Vestibular
Schwannoma Resection

Friedman RA, Goddard JC, Wilkinson EP, Schwartz MS,
Slattery WH 3rd, Fayad JN, Brackmann DE (2011)
Hearing preservation with the middle cranial fossa
approach for neuro fibromatosis type 2. Otol Neurotol

Silk PS, Lane JI, Driscoll CL (2009) Surgical approaches
to vestibular schwannomas: what the radiologist needs
to know. Radiographics 29(7):1955–1970

Bennett ML, Jackson CG, Kaufmann R, Warren F (2008)
Postoperative imaging of vestibular schwannomas.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 138(5):667–671

Hwang PH, Jackler RK (1996) Lipoid meningitis due
to aseptic necrosis of a free fat graft placed dur-
ing neurotologic surgery. Laryngoscope 106(12 Pt

Schmerber S, Palombi O, Boubagra K, Charachon R,
Chirossel JP, Gay E (2005) Long-term control of ves-
tibular schwannoma after a translabyrinthine complete
removal. Neurosurgery 57(4):693–698

Weissman JL, Hirsch BE, Fukui MB, Rudy TE (1997) The
evolving MR appearance of structures in the internal
auditory canal after removal of an acoustic neuroma.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 18(2):313–323

Miller RS, Pensak ML (2006) An anatomic and radiologic
evaluation of access to the lateral internal auditory
canal via the retrosigmoid approach and descrip-
tion of an internal labyrinthectomy. Otol Neurotol

Silk PS, Lane JI, Driscoll CL (2009) Surgical approaches
to vestibular schwannomas: what the radiologist needs
to know. Radiographics 29(7):1955–1970

Radiosurgery for Vestibular

Meijer OW, Weijmans EJ, Knol DL, Slotman BJ, Barkhof
F, Vandertop WP, Castelijns JA (2008) Tumor-volume
changes after radiosurgery for vestibular schwan-
noma: implications for follow-up MR imaging proto-
col. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(5):906–910

Nakamura H, Jokura H, Takahashi K, Boku N, Akabane
A, Yoshimoto T (2000) Serial follow-up MR imaging
after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwan-
noma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21(8):1540–1546

D.T. Ginat et al.

Page 715


vertebral stapling
C-shaped staples, 559
description, 559

Stereotactic brain biopsy
blood products, 189
cavity marker, 189
expected biopsy path enhancement, 189, 190
tumor seeding, 189, 190

Strabismus surgery
description, 45
morphology, 45

infection, 45, 46
rectus muscle rupture, 45

rectus transposition, 45
Y splitting, 45

Subcaudate tractotomy, 222–223
Subdural drainage catheters, 158
Subdural-peritoneal shunt

chronic subdural hematomas, 271
complications, 271

Suboccipital craniectomy, 140–141
Sunken skin flap syndrome, 174
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence repair, 413
Surgical aphakia, 58
Syringopleural shunt, 274–275
Syringosubarachnoid shunt, 274–275

Temporal fossa implant

methyl methacrylate, 120, 121
porous polyethylene, 120
silicone, 120, 121
soft tissue deficiency, 120

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery

Lorenz prosthesis, 445
prosthesis, 445
synthes total joint prosthesis, 446

costochondral graft reconstruction
resorption, rib graft, 443
rib graft degenerative disease and

demineralization, 443
discectomy, 442
disc implant and prosthesis failure

implant intracranial migration, 447, 448
implant perforation, 448
loosening and dislocation, 447
pseudoarthrosis, 447, 449
teflon granuloma, 448

disc replacement implants
silastic implant, 444
types, 444

glenoid implant, 445
ramus-condyle unit implant, 445

Tension pneumocephalus, 159
Textiloma, 173
Thalamotomy, 225

Thrombectomy, mechanical
complication, 667
contrast stain, 667
CTA, 668
hemorrhage and contrast stain, 667
residual contrast staining, 667, 670

abscess, 513
fluid collection, 513
hemithyroidectomy, 511–513
ipsilateral subtotal resection, 511
I-131 total body scans, 512
near-total thyroidectomy, 511, 512
recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma, 513
right strap muscle resection, 512
thyroglossal duct remnant, 512
types, 511
vocal cord paralysis, 513

Tissue expanders, 65
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

axial fat-suppressed T2 and T1, 480
cine MRI, 480, 481
flap reconstruction, 481
indications, 480
postoperative infection, 483
recurrent enlargement, 481
velopharyngeal insufficiency, 480, 482

Torkildsen shunt
description, 269
internal shunt, 269

Total ossicular reconstruction prosthesis (TORP)
Black oval-top, 372
cortical bone sculpted, 371
dislocated, 378, 381
extruded, 381
Goldenberg, 371
manubrium, malleus, 367, 369
migration, PORP, 378
ossicular chain reconstruction, 369
recurrent cholesteatoma, 378, 381

Tracheoesophageal puncture and voice prostheses
Blom-Singer voice prosthesis, 496
“esophageal speech”, 495
migration, 495, 496
provox voice prosthesis, 495

Transcanal atticotomy, 382
Transsphenoidal tumor resection

approach, 321, 322
bone remodeling, 321, 323

carotid artery injury, 327, 330
cerebrospinal fluid leak, 328, 333
chiasmopexy, 328, 334
fibrosis, 328, 335
GRE and SWI, 327
hematoma, 327, 329
infection, 327, 332
merocel migration and brainstem compression,

327, 331
optic chiasm ptosis, 328, 334


Page 716


Transsphenoidal tumor resection (cont.)
optic nerve ischemia, 328, 334
pituitary stalk transection, 328, 333
postoperative fibrosis, 328, 335
sellar hematomas, 327
sinus inflammation, 327, 332
suprasellar fat graft, 327, 331

suprasellar fat graft, 327, 331fat graft, 321, 323
granulation tissue, 321, 325
merocel packing, 321, 324
metal debris, residual, 321, 322
pedicled mucosal flap, 321, 324
subtotal resection, 321, 326
titanium mesh sellar reconstruction, 321, 325
transventricular-transsphenoidal, 321, 323

Tube drainage, cholesterol cysts
drained cholesterol cyst, 414, 415
trans-sphenoidal, 414

Vagal nerve stimulator

complication, 518
fontal neck radiograph, 518

Vascular clamp
metallic extracranial carotid, 652
Selverstone clamp, 652, 653

Vascular plugs
Amplatzer device, 663
right extracranial vertebral artery, 663, 670

Vascular surgery
aberrant right subclavian artery, left aortic arch

hybrid procedures, 653
reconstruction, 653

adjustable vascular clamp, 652–653
aneurysm clips (see Aneurysm clips)
artificial bypass grafts, 653, 655
carotid body stimulator, 652
CEA (see Carotid endarterectomy (CEA))
extracranial-intracranial revascularization (see

Extracranial-intracranial revascularization,
vascular surgery)

intracranial aneurysm muscle wrap, 634–635
microvascular decompression (see Microvascular

right aortic arch repair, aberrant left

subclavian artery, 653
Venous sinus stents

self-expandable/balloon-expandable stents, 677, 684
transverse sinus stent, 676, 677

Ventricular shunts
aqueductoplasty and stenting, 279
atrial, 267
fourth, 286, 300, 302
pleural, 267–268, 274
vesical, 267

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts
Codman Hakim programmable shunt valve, 264
complications, 260
delta 1.5 valve VP shunt, 263
MRI, 264, 266
normal nuclear medicine shunt study, 260, 296
programmable valves, 260
“shuntogram”, 260
shunt series, 260, 262
strata valve programmable shunt, 264, 285
valve performance level setting chart, 265
ventriculoperitoneal shunt components, 265

Ventriculosubgaleal shunt, 268, 270
VEPTR. See Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib

Vertebral augmentation

increased vertebral body height, 610
kyphoplasty/vertebroplasty, 609
polymethylmethacrylate cement

injection, 609
skyphoplasty, 524, 609

partial, residual tumor, 596
resection, thoracic vertebra, 611

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR),

Vestibular nerve sectioning, 412
Vestibular schwannomas

radiosurgery, 348

encephalocele, 339, 344
endolymphatic sac fluid signal loss, 339, 345
fat graft aseptic lipoid meningitis, 338, 343
fat graft necrosis, 338, 342
infarction, 339, 347
labyrinthitis, 339, 345
labyrinthitis ossificans, 339, 346
mastoid entry and cerebrospinal fluid leak,

339, 343
middle cranial fossa approach, 338, 339
pseudomeningocele, 339, 344
residual schwannoma, 338, 341
retrosigmoid approach, 338, 341
translabyrinthine approach, 338, 340
venous sinus thrombosis, 339, 347
wound abscess, 339, 346

Vibrating ossicular prosthesis (VORP)
conductive and mixed hearing loss, 351
extracranial magnet, 351
mastoidectomy, 386

VP shunts. See Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts

Wallerian degeneration, 242, 249
Wounded tumor syndrome, 197, 199


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