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Designation: E165/E165M − 12

Standard Practice for
Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E165/E165M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope*

1.1 This practice2 covers procedures for penetrant examina-
tion of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing
method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface
such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations,
through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process,
final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the
examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and
nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as non-
porous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain
nonporous plastics, and glass.

1.2 This practice also provides a reference:
1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process

recommended or required by individual organizations can be
reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness.

1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and
procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts
and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant
inspection is strongly recommended. All areas of this practice
may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering
organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the
cognizant engineering organization.

1.2.3 For use in the organization of facilities and personnel
concerned with liquid penetrant testing.

1.3 This practice does not indicate or suggest criteria for
evaluation of the indications obtained by penetrant testing. It
should be pointed out, however, that after indications have
been found, they must be interpreted or classified and then
evaluated. For this purpose there must be a separate code,
standard, or a specific agreement to define the type, size,
location, and direction of indications considered acceptable,
and those considered unacceptable.

1.4 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-
pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The
values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;

therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.
Combining values from the two systems may result in non-
conformance with the standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents

2.1 ASTM Standards:3

D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Gen-
eral High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

E516 Practice for Testing Thermal Conductivity Detectors
Used in Gas Chromatography

D808 Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum
Products (High Pressure Decomposition Device Method)

D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-

Temperature Method)
D4327 Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion

E433 Reference Photographs for Liquid Penetrant Inspec-

E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive

E1208 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing

Using the Lipophilic Post-Emulsification Process
E1209 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing

Using the Water-Washable Process
E1210 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing

Using the Hydrophilic Post-Emulsification Process
E1219 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing

Using the Solvent-Removable Process
E1220 Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using Solvent-

Removable Process
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E1417 Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nonde-

structive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.03 on Liquid
Penetrant and Magnetic Particle Methods.

Current edition approved June 15, 2012. Published July 2012. Originally
approved in 1960. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as E165 - 09. DOI:

2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Recom-
mended Test Method SE-165 in the Code.

3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard

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E1418 Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using the
Water-Washable Process

E2297 Guide for Use of UV-A and Visible Light Sources and
Meters used in the Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic Particle

2.2 ASNT Document:4

SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Nondestructive
Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification

ANSI/ASNT CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certifi-
cation of Nondestructive Testing Personnel

2.3 Military Standard:
MIL-STD-410 Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualifica-

tion and Certification5

2.4 APHA Standard:
429 Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater6

2.5 AIA Standard:
NAS-410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive

Test Personnel7

2.6 SAE Standards:8

AMS 2644 Inspection Material, Penetrant
QPL-AMS-2644 Qualified Products of Inspection Materials,


3. Terminology

3.1 The definitions relating to liquid penetrant examination,
which appear in Terminology E1316, shall apply to the terms
used in this practice.

4. Summary of Practice

4.1 Liquid penetrant may consist of visible or fluorescent
material. The liquid penetrant is applied evenly over the
surface being examined and allowed to enter open discontinui-
ties. After a suitable dwell time, the excess surface penetrant is
removed. A developer is applied to draw the entrapped pen-
etrant out of the discontinuity and stain the developer. The test
surface is then examined to determine the presence or absence
of indications.

NOTE 1—The developer may be omitted by agreement between the
contracting parties.

NOTE 2—Fluorescent penetrant examination shall not follow a visible
penetrant examination unless the procedure has been qualified in accor-
dance with 10.2, because visible dyes may cause deterioration or
quenching of fluorescent dyes.

4.2 Processing parameters, such as surface precleaning,
penetrant dwell time and excess penetrant removal methods,
are dependent on the specific materials used, the nature of the
part under examination, (that is, size, shape, surface condition,
alloy) and type of discontinuities expected.

5. Significance and Use

5.1 Liquid penetrant testing methods indicate the presence,
location and, to a limited extent, the nature and magnitude of
the detected discontinuities. Each of the various penetrant
methods has been designed for specific uses such as critical
service items, volume of parts, portability or localized areas of
examination. The method selected will depend accordingly on
the design and service requirements of the parts or materials
being tested.

6. Classification of Penetrant Materials and Methods

6.1 Liquid penetrant examination methods and types are
classified in accordance with MIL-I-25135 and AMS 2644 as
listed in Table 1.

6.2 Fluorescent Penetrant Testing (Type 1)—Fluorescent
penetrant testing utilizes penetrants that fluoresce brilliantly
when excited by black light (UVA). The sensitivity of fluores-
cent penetrants depends on their ability to be retained in the
various size discontinuities during processing, and then to
bleed out into the developer coating and produce indications
that will fluoresce. Fluorescent indications are many times
brighter than their surroundings when viewed under appropri-
ate black light illumination.

6.3 Visible Penetrant Testing (Type 2)—Visible penetrant
testing uses a penetrant that can be seen in visible light. The
penetrant is usually red, so that resultant indications produce a
definite contrast with the white background of the developer.
Visible penetrant indications must be viewed under adequate
white light.

7. Materials

7.1 Liquid Penetrant Testing Materials consist of fluores-
cent or visible penetrants, emulsifiers (oil-base and water-
base), removers (water and solvent), and developers (dry
powder, aqueous and nonaqueous). A family of liquid penetrant
examination materials consists of the applicable penetrant and
emulsifier, as recommended by the manufacturer. Any liquid
penetrant, remover and developer listed in QPL-25135/QPL-
AMS2644 can be used, regardless of the manufacturer. Inter-
mixing of penetrants and emulsifiers from different manufac-
turers is prohibited.

NOTE 3—Refer to 9.1 for special requirements for sulfur, halogen and
alkali metal content.

NOTE 4—While approved penetrant materials will not adversely affect
common metallic materials, some plastics or rubbers may be swollen or
stained by certain penetrants.

7.2 Penetrants:

4 Available from American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), P.O. Box
28518, 1711 Arlingate Ln., Columbus, OH 43228-0518,

5 Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,
Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098, http://

6 Available from American Public Health Association, Publication Office, 1015
Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.

7 Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. (AIA), 1000
Wilson Blvd., Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-3928,

8 Available from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth
Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001,

TABLE 1 Classification of Penetrant Examination Types and

Type I—Fluorescent Penetrant Examination

Method A—Water-washable (see Test Method E1209)
Method B—Post-emulsifiable, lipophilic (see Test Method E1208)
Method C—Solvent removable (see Test Method E1219)
Method D—Post-emulsifiable, hydrophilic (see Test Method E1210)

Type II—Visible Penetrant Examination
Method A—Water-washable (see Test Method E1418)
Method C—Solvent removable (see Test Method E1220)

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After ultrasonic cleaning, parts must be rinsed completely free
of cleaner, thoroughly dried, and cooled to at least 125°F
[52°C], before application of penetrant.

A1.1.1.6 Paint Removal—Paint films can be effectively
removed by bond release solvent paint remover or
disintegrating-type hot-tank alkaline paint strippers. In most
cases, the paint film must be completely removed to expose the
surface of the metal. Solvent-type paint removers can be of the
high-viscosity thickened type for spray or brush application or
can be of low viscosity two-layer type for dip-tank application.
Both types of solvent paint removers are generally used at
ambient temperatures, as received. Hot-tank alkaline strippers
should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc-
tions. After paint removal, the parts must be thoroughly rinsed
to remove all contamination from the void openings, thor-
oughly dried, and cooled to at least 125°F [52°C] before
application of penetrant.

A1.1.1.7 Mechanical Cleaning and Surface Conditioning—
Metal-removing processes such as filing, buffing, scraping,
mechanical milling, drilling, reaming, grinding, liquid honing,
sanding, lathe cutting, tumble or vibratory deburring, and
abrasive blasting, including abrasives such as glass beads,
sand, aluminum oxide, ligno-cellulose pellets, metallic shot,
etc., are often used to remove such soils as carbon, rust and
scale, and foundry adhering sands, as well as to deburr or
produce a desired cosmetic effect on the part. These processes
may decrease the effectiveness of the penetrant testing by
smearing or peening over metal surfaces and filling disconti-
nuities open to the surface, especially for soft metals such as
aluminum, titanium, magnesium, and beryllium alloy.

A1.1.1.8 Acid Etching—Inhibited acid solutions (pickling
solutions) are routinely used for descaling part surfaces.
Descaling is necessary to remove oxide scale, which can mask
surface discontinuities and prevent penetrant from entering.

Acid solutions/etchants are also used routinely to remove
smeared metal that peens over surface discontinuities. Such
etchants should be used in accordance with the manufacturers’

NOTE A1.1—Etched parts and materials should be rinsed completely
free of etchants, the surface neutralized and thoroughly dried by heat prior
to application of penetrants. Acids and chromates can adversely affect the
fluorescence of fluorescent materials.

NOTE A1.2—Whenever there is a possibility of hydrogen embrittlement
as a result of acid solution/etching, the part should be baked at a suitable
temperature for an appropriate time to remove the hydrogen before further
processing. After baking, the part shall be cooled to a temperature below
125°F [52°C] before applying penetrants.

A1.1.1.9 Air Firing of Ceramics—Heating of a ceramic part
in a clean, oxidizing atmosphere is an effective way of
removing moisture or light organic soil or both. The maximum
temperature that will not cause degradation of the properties of
the ceramic should be used.

A1.2 Post Cleaning

A1.2.1 Removal of Developer—Dry powder developer can
be effectively removed with an air blow-off (free of oil) or it
can be removed with water rinsing. Wet developer coatings can
be removed effectively by water rinsing or water rinsing with
detergent either by hand or with a mechanical assist (scrub
brushing, machine washing, etc.). The soluble developer coat-
ings simply dissolve off of the part with a water rinse.

A1.2.2 Residual penetrant may be removed through solvent
action. Solvent soaking (15 min minimum), and ultrasonic
solvent cleaning (3 min minimum) techniques are recom-
mended. In some cases, it is desirable to vapor degrease, then
follow with a solvent soak. The actual time required in the
vapor degreaser and solvent soak will depend on the nature of
the part and should be determined experimentally.


A2.1 Scope and Application

A2.1.1 These methods cover the determination of chlorine
in combustible liquid penetrant materials, liquid or solid. Its
range of applicability is 0.001 to 5 % using either of the
alternative titrimetric procedures. The procedures assume that
bromine or iodine will not be present. If these elements are
present, they will be detected and reported as chlorine. The full
amount of these elements will not be reported. Chromate
interferes with the procedures, causing low or nonexistent end
points. The method is applicable only to materials that are
totally combustible.

A2.2 Summary of Methods

A2.2.1 The sample is oxidized by combustion in a bomb
containing oxygen under pressure (see A2.2.1.1). The chlorine
compounds thus liberated are absorbed in a sodium carbonate
solution and the amount of chloride present is determined

titrimetrically either against silver nitrate with the end point
detected potentiometrically (Method A) or coulometrically
with the end point detected by current flow increase (Method

A2.2.1.1 Safety—Strict adherence to all of the provisions
prescribed hereinafter ensures against explosive rupture of the
bomb, or a blow-out, provided the bomb is of proper design
and construction and in good mechanical condition. It is
desirable, however, that the bomb be enclosed in a shield of
steel plate at least 1⁄2 in. [12.7 mm] thick, or equivalent
protection be provided against unforeseeable contingencies.

A2.3 Apparatus

A2.3.1 Bomb, having a capacity of not less than 300 mL, so
constructed that it will not leak during the test, and that
quantitative recovery of the liquids from the bomb may be
readily achieved. The inner surface of the bomb may be made

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of stainless steel or any other material that will not be affected
by the combustion process or products. Materials used in the
bomb assembly, such as the head gasket and leadwire
insulation, shall be resistant to heat and chemical action, and
shall not undergo any reaction that will affect the chlorine
content of the liquid in the bomb.

A2.3.2 Sample Cup, platinum, 24 mm in outside diameter at
the bottom, 27 mm in outside diameter at the top, 12 mm in
height outside and weighing 10 to 11 g, opaque fused silica,
wide-form with an outside diameter of 29 mm at the top, a
height of 19 mm, and a 5-mL capacity (Note 1), or nickel
(Kawin capsule form), top diameter of 28 mm, 15 mm in
height, and 5-mL capacity.

NOTE A2.1—Fused silica crucibles are much more economical and
longer-lasting than platinum. After each use, they should be scrubbed out
with fine, wet emery cloth, heated to dull red heat over a burner, soaked
in hot water for 1 h, then dried and stored in a desiccator before reuse.

A2.3.3 Firing Wire, platinum, approximately No. 26 B & S

A2.3.4 Ignition Circuit (Note A2.2), capable of supplying
sufficient current to ignite the nylon thread or cotton wicking
without melting the wire.

NOTE A2.2—The switch in the ignition circuit should be of a type that
remains open, except when held in closed position by the operator.

A2.3.5 Nylon Sewing Thread, or Cotton Wicking, white.

A2.4 Purity of Reagents

A2.4.1 Reagent grade chemicals shall be used in all tests.
Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that all reagents shall
conform to the specifications of the Committee on Analytical
Reagents of the American Chemical Society, where such
specifications are available.9 Other grades may be used pro-
vided it is first ascertained that the reagent is of sufficiently
high purity to permit its use without lessening the accuracy of
the determination.

A2.4.2 Unless otherwise indicated, references to water shall
be understood to mean referee grade reagent water conforming
to Specification D1193.

A2.5 Sample Preparation

A2.5.1 Penetrants, Developers, Emulsifiers, Magnetic Oils:
A2.5.1.1 Weigh 50 g of test material into a 150-mm petri

A2.5.1.2 Place the 150-mm petri dish into a 194°F [90°C] to

212°F [100°C] oven for 60 minutes.
A2.5.1.3 Allow the test material to cool to room tempera-


A2.5.2 Solvent Cleaners:
A2.5.2.1 Take the tare weight of an aluminum dish.
A2.5.2.2 Weigh 100 g of the cleaner into the aluminum dish.

A2.5.2.3 Place the aluminum dish on a hot plate in a fume

A2.5.2.4 Let the material evaporate until the dish is nearly

A2.5.2.5 Place the dish into a preheated oven from 194°F
[90°C] to 212°F [100°C] for 10 minutes.

A2.5.2.6 Take the dish out of the oven and allow to cool.
A2.5.2.7 Reweigh the dish and record weight.
NOTE A2.3—For Cleaners—If the residue is less than 50 ppm, report

the residue weight. If the weight is greater than 50 ppm, proceed with the
bomb procedure.

A2.6 Decomposition

A2.6.1 Reagents and Materials:
A2.6.1.1 Oxygen, free of combustible material and halogen

compounds, available at a pressure of 40 atm [4.05 MPa].
A2.6.1.2 Sodium Carbonate Solution (50 g Na2CO3/L)—

Dissolve 50 g of anhydrous Na2CO3 or 58.5 g of Na2CO3·2O)
or 135 g of Na2CO3·10H2O in water and dilute to 1 L.

A2.6.1.3 White Oil, refined.

A2.6.2 Procedure:
A2.6.2.1 Preparation of Bomb and Sample—Cut a piece of

firing wire approximately 100 mm in length. Coil the middle
section (about 20 mm) and attach the free ends to the terminals.
Arrange the coil so that it will be above and to one side of the
sample cup. Place 5 mL of Na2CO3 solution in the bomb (Note
A2.4), place the cover on the bomb and vigorously shake for 15
s to distribute the solution over the inside of the bomb. Open
the bomb, place the sample-filled sample cup in the terminal
holder, and insert a short length of thread between the firing
wire and the sample. Use of a sample weight containing over
20 mg of chlorine may cause corrosion of the bomb. The
sample weight should not exceed 0.4 g if the expected chlorine
content is 2.5 % or above. If the sample is solid, not more than
0.2 g should be used. Use 0.8 g of white oil with solid samples.
If white oil will be used (Note A2.5), add it to the sample cup
by means of a dropper at this time (see Note A2.6 and Note

NOTE A2.4—After repeated use of the bomb for chlorine determination,
a film may be noticed on the inner surface. This dullness should be
removed by periodic polishing of the bomb. A satisfactory method for
doing this is to rotate the bomb in a lathe at about 300 rpm and polish the
inside surface with Grit No. 2/0 or equivalent paper coated with a light
machine oil to prevent cutting, and then with a paste of grit-free chromic
oxide and water. This procedure will remove all but very deep pits and put
a high polish on the surface. Before using the bomb, it should be washed
with soap and water to remove oil or paste left from the polishing
operation. Bombs with porous or pitted surfaces should never be used
because of the tendency to retain chlorine from sample to sample. It is
recommended to not use more than 1 g total of sample and white oil or
other chlorine-free combustible material.

NOTE A2.5—If the sample is not readily miscible with white oil, some
other nonvolatile, chlorine-free combustible diluent may be employed in
place of white oil. However, the combined weight of sample and
nonvolatile diluent shall not exceed 1 g. Some solid additives are
relatively insoluble, but may be satisfactorily burned when covered with
a layer of white oil.

NOTE A2.6—The practice of running alternately samples high and low
in chlorine content should be avoided whenever possible. It is difficult to
rinse the last traces of chlorine from the walls of the bomb and the
tendency for residual chlorine to carry over from sample to sample has
been observed in a number of laboratories. When a sample high in

9 Reagent Chemicals, American Chemical Society Specifications , American
Chemical Society, Washington, DC. For suggestions on the testing of reagents not
listed by the American Chemical Society, see Analar Standards for Laboratory
Chemicals, BDH Ltd., Poole, Dorset, U.K., and the United States Pharmacopeia
and National Formulary, U.S. Pharmaceutical Convention, Inc. (USPC), Rockville,

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the expected result or eliminate the water dip by diluting the
sample with eluant or by adding concentrated eluant to the
sample to give the same HCO3

2− concentration as in the

eluant. If sample adjustments are made, adjust standards and
blanks identically.

NOTE A4.6—Water dip occurs because water conductivity in sample is
less than eluant conductivity (eluant is diluted by water).

A4.7.2.1 If linearity is established for a given detector
setting, it is acceptable to calibrate with a single standard.
Record the peak height or area and retention time to permit
calculation of the calibration factor, F.

A4.7.3 Sample Analysis—Remove sample particulates, if
necessary, by filtering through a prewashed 0.2-µm-pore-diam
membrane filter. Using a prewashed syringe of 1 to 10 mL
capacity equipped with a male luer fitting inject sample or
standard. Inject enough sample to flush sample loop several
times: for 0.1 mL sample loop inject at least 1 mL. Switch ion
chromatograph from load to inject mode and record peak
heights and retention times on strip chart recorder. After the
last peak (SO4

2− ) has appeared and the conductivity signal has
returned to base line, another sample can be injected.

A4.7.4 Regeneration—For systems without fiber suppressor
regenerate with 1 N H2SO4 in accordance with the manufac-
turer’s instructions when the conductivity base line exceeds
300 µmho when the suppressor column is on line.

A4.8 Calculation

A4.8.1 Calculate concentration of each anion, in mg/L, by
referring to the appropriate calibration curve. Alternatively,
when the response is shown to be linear, use the following

C 5 H 3 F 3 D (A4.1)

C = mg anion/L,
H = peak height or area,
F = response factor − concentration of standard/height (or

area) of standard, and
D = dilution factor for those samples requiring dilution.

A4.9 Precision and Bias

A4.9.1 Samples of reagent water to which were added the
common anions were analyzed in 15 laboratories with the
results shown in Table A4.2.

TABLE A4.2 Precision and Accuracy Observed for Anions at Various Concentration Levels in Reagent Water


Added, mg/L

Found, mg/L





Bias 95 %


F− 0.48 0.49 0.05 0.03 No
F− 4.84 4.64 0.52 0.46 No
Cl 0.76 0.86 0.38 0.11 No
Cl− 17 17.2 0.82 0.43 No
Cl 455 471 46 13 No
NO2 0.45 0.09 0.09 0.04 Yes, neg
NO2 21.8 19.4 1.9 1.3 Yes, neg
Br− 0.25 0.25 0.04 0.02 No
Br− 13.7 12.9 1.0 0.6 No

3− 0.18 0.10 0.06 0.03 Yes, neg

3− 0.49 0.34 0.15 0.17 Yes, neg

− 0.50 0.33 0.16 0.03 No

− 15.1 14.8 1.15 0.9 No

2− 0.51 0.52 0.07 0.03 No

2− 43.7 43.5 2.5 2.2 No


Committee E07 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (E165 - 09)
that may impact the use of this standard. (June 15, 2012)

(1) Added A2.5, A3.4, and A3.4.2. (2) Revised 1.4, Note 11,, and 8.9.2.

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