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Page 224

206 ADVANCED COURSE IN ENGLISH

denounce is very likely a disinclination to cornmit cultural
and economic suicide. And it has been said by someone
that broadness oi mind is like the broadness of rivers. It is
often accompanied by lack oi depth. And lack of depth is
a serious defeet, in intellectual lije.

I think that· the real reason for the failure of the'
intellectuals is to be found in the faet that the intellectual
life that they have built up is upside down, like a pyramid
balanced on its apex. . The more successful intellectual-
as opposed to the intelligent man-usually begins by
acquiring .a reputation for proficiency in sorne branch of
science or art; and uses this as a justification for dogmatiz-
ing on everything. H. G. Wells, for instance, as a younger
man, wrote what 1, rightly or wrongly, and in all humility,
consider to be the finest novels of this century. 1 mean the
novels of tlÍe style and period of "Mr. Polly." Naturally,
Mr. Wells got the ear of the publico But unfortunately, he
used this popularity to make literature an instrurnent of
propaganda for his ill-balanced ideas on history,philosophy,
and social science. Those who loved literature, as such
might well have cried out in bitter disappointmént, "We
asked you for bread, and you have .given us a stone ! "
And they would have been right. A natural genius for
writing fiction, coupled with an intensive training in
that art, are, to say the least, a definite handicap to a
philosopher or a historian or a scientist. Such aman
is in the position of the unfortupate detective'story writer
who lived in a cottage where a woman writer of sickly-
sweet romances had dwelt for twenty years. Her spirit -haunted him without his knowing it; so that al! at once
the policemen in the books he was writing started falling
in love with the pretty girls tbey were supposed to be

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THE FIFTEENTH LESSON 207

questioning; and a11 the criminals suddenly blossomed
out into romantic gallants.

Or take the case of Freud. He was responsible for
epoch-making discoveries with regard to sex; and,
n;t.t u rally, acquired a high reputation. But when he
started to explain everything in lije, from football matches
to the Crucifixion, exclusively in terms of sex, he was,

,at best, taIking sheer nonsense; and, at worst, cold
blasphemy.

Again, 1 had a friend, an economist with an inter-
national reputation, who tried to prove that considerations
based on economics were at the bottom of every historical
ph~nomenon. Now this also seems to me to be sheer
nonsense. St. Francis of Assisi exercised a definite
historical influence.' So did Florence Nightingale. And
St. Francis certainly did not go around preaching poverty
because he thought that 1ieduced national consumption
would restore the balance of trade and increase Italy's
holdings of foreign currency. Nor do 1 believe that
Florence Nightingale wanted soldiers to survive the
wounds of battle so that after the war they might swell -the ranks of England's industrial population, and so
strengthen the commercial position of her country.
Personally, 1 think that she just wanted to do away with
sufferillg.

As it is with the more ·prominent intellectuals, so it is
with the lesser lights. We have deans who are famous
for their writings on everything save theology. We have
company directors turned into mediocre politicians. They
are legislators, but they l§now nothing about law. There
,are doctors who are second rate novelists; civil servants
who are essayists and incompetent junctionaries.' Hyue
Park is infested with ranters who hold forth on subjects

Page 447

THE THIRTY-FIRST LESSON 429

may be placed before the noun direct -object and its
determining group. E.g., He explained to us the difference
between the words to " declare " and " to say."

381. If sentences are joined by " and," " but," " nor "
in combination with "neither," or "or" in combination
with "either," and both sentences have the same subject,
the latter need not be repeated before the second verbo
E.g., He went to London, and during bisstay visited the
British Museum. He has lived in London for years, but
has not yet been inside the National Gallery. He neither
sleeps nor eats. In the evening, he either stays in bis
club, or goes to the theatre.

38a. Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs
usually precede the adjective or adverb so modified. The
following are exceptions :-

Post-position.
at all
enough
by haIf

Pre-position or post-position.
indeed
by far

Examples.-I am not at all angry with you. Do you
think the work is góod enoUgh. She is not clever enough
by half. It was brave of you indeed to do it. It was brave
indeed of you to do it. Peter is braver by far than J ohn.
Peter is by far the bravest man 1 know. J etta Georgina
is a very pretty girl indeed.

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