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Table of Contents
                            MAIN MENU
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1— INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
	1.1— Introduction
	1.2—Scope
CHAPTER 2— NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS
	2.1—Notation
	2.2—Definitions
CHAPTER 3— PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
	3.1— Test age
	3.2—Required average compressive strength
		3.2.1 Proportioning based on field experience
		3.2.2 Proportioning based on trial batches
	3.3—Other requirements
CHAPTER 4— CONCRETE MATERIALS
	4.1— Introduction
	4.2—Portland cement
	4.3—Fly ash
	4.4—Silica fume
	4.5—Slag cement
	4.6—Combinations of other cementitious materials
	4.7—Mixing water
	4.8—Coarse aggregate
	4.9—Fine aggregate
	4.10—Chemical admixtures
CHAPTER 5— HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE MIXTURE PROPERTIES
	5.1— Introduction
	5.2—Water-cementitious material ratio
	5.3—Workability
		5.3.1 Slump
CHAPTER 6— HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE MIXTURE PROPORTIONING USING FLY ASH
	6.1— Fundamental relationship
		6.1.1 Materials selection
		6.1.2 Special consideration
	6.2—Concrete mixture proportioning
		6.2.1 Purpose
		6.2.2 Introduction
		6.2.3 Mixture proportioning procedure
			6.2.3.1 Step 1: Select slump and required concretestrength
			6.2.3.2 Step 2: Select maximum size of aggregate
			6.2.3.3 Step 3: Select optimum coarse aggregate content
			6.2.3.4 Step 4: Estimate mixing water and air content
			6.2.3.5 Step 5: Select w/cm
			6.2.3.6 Step 6: Calculate content of cementitiousmaterial
			6.2.3.7 Step 7: Proportion basic mixture with no othercementitious material
			6.2.3.8 Step 8: Proportion companion mixtures using flyash
			6.2.3.9 Step 9: Trial mixtures
			6.2.3.10 Step l0: Adjust trial mixture proportions
			6.2.3.11 Step 11: Select optimum mixture proportions
	6.3—Sample calculations
		6.3.1 Introduction
		6.3.2 Example
			6.3.2.1 Step 1: Select slump and required concrete strength
			6.3.2.2 Step 2: Select maximum size of aggregate
			6.3.2.3 Step 3: Select optimum coarse aggregate content
			6.3.2.4 Step 4: Estimate mixing water and air contents
			6.3.2.5 Step 5: Select w/cm
			6.3.2.6 Step 6: Calculate content of cementitious material
			6.3.2.7 Step 7: Proportion basic mixture with cement only
			6.3.2.8 Step 9: Proportion companion mixtures usingcement and fly ash
			6.3.2.9 Step 9: Trial mixtures
			6.3.2.10 Step 10: Adjust trial mixture proportions
				6.3.2.10.1 Basic mixture
				6.3.2.10.2 Companion mixture No. 4
				6.3.2.10.3 Summary of trial mixture performance
			6.3.2.11 Step 11: Select optimum mixture proportions
CHAPTER 7— HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE MIXTURE PROPORTIONING USING SILICA FUME
	7.1— Fundamental relationships
		7.1.1 Cement and silica fume
			7.1.1.1 Chemical admixtures
			7.1.1.2 Water demand
			7.1.1.3 Aggregate
			7.1.1.4 Workability and slump
		7.1.2 Special considerations
	7.2—Concrete mixture proportioning
		7.2.1 Purpose
		7.2.2 Introduction
		7.2.3 Mixture proportioning procedure
		7.2.3.1 Proportioning
			7.2.3.1.1 Step 1: Determine project requirements
			7.2.3.1.2 Step 2: Coordinate with the contractor who will be placing the concrete
			7.2.3.1.3 Step 3: Select starting mixture
			7.2.3.1.4 Step 4: Determine the volume of entrained air required
			7.2.3.1.5 Step 5: Incorporate local aggregates into the original trial mixture
			7.2.3.1.6 Step 6: Prepare laboratory trial mixtures
			7.2.3.1.7 Step 7: Conduct full-scale testing
	7.3—Sample calculations
		7.3.1 Introduction
		7.3.2 Examples
			7.3.2.1 Step 1: Determine project requirements
			7.3.2.2 Step 2: Coordinate with contractor
			7.3.2.3 Step 3: Select a starting mixture
			7.3.2.4 Step 4: Determine volume of air required
			7.3.2.5 Step 5: Incorporate local aggregates
			7.3.2.6 Step 6: Prepare laboratory trial mixtures
			7.3.2.7 Step 7: Conduct full-scale testing
CHAPTER 8— HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE MIXTURE PROPORTIONING USING SLAG CEMENT
	8.1— Fundamental relationships
		8.1.1 Selection of materials
			8.1.1.1 Portland cement
			8.1.1.2 Chemical admixtures
			8.1.1.3 Coarse aggregates
			8.1.1.4 Slag cement
				8.1.1.4.1 Slag activity index of slag cement
				8.1.1.4.2 Density and handling of slag cement
		8.1.2 Special considerations
	8.2—Concrete mixture proportioning
		8.2.1 Purpose
		8.2.2 Introduction
			8.2.2.1 Selecting initial slag cement grade and proportions
			8.2.2.2 Development of relative compressive strength: slag cement content curve
		8.2.3 Mixture proportioning methods
			8.2.3.1 Method A
				8.2.3.1.1 Step 1
				8.2.3.1.2 Step 2
				8.2.3.1.3 Step 3
				8.2.3.1.4 Step 4
				8.2.3.1.5 Step 5
				8.2.3.1.6 Step 6
				8.2.3.1.7 Step 7
				8.2.3.1.8 Step 8
				8.2.3.1.9 Step 9
				8.2.3.1.10 Step 10
				8.2.3.1.11 Step 11
			8.2.3.2 Method B
				8.2.3.2.1 Steps 1 through 5
				8.2.3.2.2 Step 6
				8.2.3.2.3 Step 7
				8.2.3.2.4 Steps 8 through 11
	8.3—Sample calculations
		8.3.1 Introduction
		8.3.2 Examples
			8.3.2.1 Example 1, Method A
				8.3.2.1.1 Step 1
				8.3.2.1.2 Step 2
				8.3.2.1.3 Step 3
				8.3.2.1.4 Step 4
				8.3.2.1.5 Step 5
				8.3.2.1.6 Step 6
				8.3.2.1.7 Step 7
				8.3.2.1.8 Step 8
				8.3.2.1.9 Step 9
				8.3.2.1.10 Step 10
				8.3.2.1.11 Step 11
			8.3.2.2 Example 1, Method B
				8.3.2.2.1 Step 1
				8.3.2.2.2 Step 2
				8.3.2.2.3 Step 3
				8.3.2.2.4 Step 4
				8.3.2.2.5 Step 5
				8.3.2.2.6 Step 6
				8.3.2.2.7 Step 7
				8.3.2.2.8 Step 8
				8.3.2.2.9 Step 9
				8.3.2.2.10 Step 10
			8.3.2.3 Example 2, Method B
				8.3.2.3.1 Step 1
				8.3.2.3.2 Step 2
				8.3.2.3.3 Step 3
				8.3.2.3.4 Step 4
				8.3.2.3.5 Step 5
				8.3.2.3.6 Step 6
				8.3.2.3.7 Step 7
				8.3.2.3.8 Step 8
CHAPTER 9— REFERENCES
	9.1— Referenced standards and reports
	9.2—Cited references
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ACI 211.4R-08

Reported by ACI Committee 211

Guide for Selecting Proportions
for High-Strength Concrete
Using Portland Cement and

Other Cementitious Materials

Page 2

Guide for Selecting Proportions for High-Strength Concrete Using
Portland Cement and Other Cementitious Materials

First Printing
December 2008

ISBN 978-0-87031-314-1

American Concrete Institute
®

Advancing concrete knowledge

Copyright by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. All rights reserved. This material
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Page 14

Untitled


211.4R-12 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT
The required volume of fine aggregate is (27.0 – 21.24) =
5.76 ft3. Converting this to the mass of fine aggregate (dry)
per cubic yard of concrete, the required mass is (5.76) ×
(62.4) × (2.59) = 931 lb.

The mixture proportions per cubic yard of concrete for
each companion mixture are as follows:

During trial batches, the proportioner needs to be aware of
the possible need to make the necessary adjustment of the
proper dosage rates for all chemical admixtures. In this
example, the dosage rate of chemical retarding admixture
was adjusted from 3.0 to 2.5 oz/cwt to account for the
retarding action of the fly ash.

6.3.2.9 Step 9: Trial mixtures—Trial mixtures should be
conducted for the basic mixture and each of the four companion
mixtures. If the fine aggregate is found to have 6.4% total mois-
ture, and the coarse aggregate is found to have 0.5% total mois-
ture, based on dry conditions, aggregate masses are adjusted by
increasing batch weight per cubic yard as follows:
Fine aggregate, wet = (963) × (1 + 0.064) = 1024 lb
Coarse aggregate, wet = (1854) × (1 + 0.005) =1863 lb
Water = (295) – (963)(0.064 – 0.011)

– (1854)(0.005 – 0.007) = 248 lb
Thus, the batch mass of water is corrected to account for

the moisture contributed by the aggregates, which is the total
moisture minus the absorption of the aggregate.

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding mixture) 4.73

Air 0.54

Total volume 21.24

Materials Basic, lb

Companion mixtures, lb

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4

Cement 984 787 738 689 640

Fly ash, Class C — 197 246 295 344

Fine aggregate, dry 963 931 924 916 908

Coarse aggregates, dry 1854 1854 1854 1854 1854

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt
retarding admixture) 295 295 295 295 295

Basic mixture Dry masses, lb Batch masses, lb

Cement 984 984

Fine aggregate 963 1024

Coarse aggregate 1854 1863

Water (including 3 oz/cwt retarding
admixture) 295 248

Companion mixture No. 1 Dry masses, lb Batch masses, lb

Cement 787 787

Fly ash 197 197

Fine aggregate 931 992

Coarse aggregate 1854 1863

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding
mixture) 295 250

Companion mixture No. 2 Dry masses, lb Batch masses, lb

Cement 738 738

Fly ash 246 246

Fine aggregate 924 984

Coarse aggregate 1854 1863

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding
admixture) 295 250
The size of the trial mixture is selected to be 3.0 ft3. The
reduced batch mass for the basic mixture to yield 3.0 ft3 is
calculated as follows:

Cement = 984 × (3/27) = 109.33 lb

Fine aggregate = 1024 × (3/27) = 113.90 lb

Coarse aggregate = 1863 × (3/27) = 207.00 lb

Water = 248 × (3/27) = 27.52 lb

The reduced batch mass for the basic and the companion
mixtures to yield 3.0 ft3 are presented herein:

6.3.2.10 Step 10: Adjust trial mixture proportions—
Trial mixture proportions will require adjustment and the
batch mass for each trial mixture will be adjusted during the
batching to obtain the desired slump, before and after the
addition of the HRWRA, and the desired workability. The
adjustments to the batch mass for the basic mixture and
companion mixture No. 4 will be shown in detail. Those for
the other three companion mixtures will be summarized.

6.3.2.10.1 Basic mixture
1. Although the amount of water required to produce a 1 to

2 in. slump was calculated to be 27.52 lb, actually 28.50 lb
(including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding admixture) was needed to
produce the desired slump. The actual batch mass for the
basic mixture was then:

Companion mixture No. 3 Dry masses, lb Batch masses, lb

Cement 689 689

Fly ash 295 295

Fine aggregate, dry 917 975

Coarse aggregate, dry 1854 1863

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding
admixture) 295 250

Companion mixture No. 4 Dry masses, lb Batch masses, lb

Cement 640 640

Fly ash, Class C 344 344

Fine aggregate 909 967

Coarse aggregate 1854 1863

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding
admixture) 295 251

Materials Basic

Companion mixture

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4

Cement, lb 109.30 87.60 82.00 76.50 71.10

Fly ash, Class C, lb — 21.87 27.33 32.78 38.27

Fine aggregate, lb 113.90 110.20 109.28 108.36 107.43

Coarse aggregate, lb 207.00 207.00 207.00 207.00 207.00

Water, lb 27.52 27.70 27.75 27.80 27.84

Chemical admixtures (included as part of the mixing water)

Component
Volume (per cubic yard of

concrete, ft3)

Cement 109.00 lb

Fine aggregate 114.00 lb

Coarse aggregate 207.00 lb

Water 28.50 lb

Page 15

Untitled


SELECTING PROPORTIONS FOR HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE 211.4R-13
Correcting these to dry mass gives:

The actual yield of the trial mixture was:

Adjusting the mixture proportions to yield 27.0 ft3 gives:
Cement = 109.00 × (27/3) × (3/3.01) = 976 lb
Fine aggregate = 107.14 × (27/3) × (3/3.01) = 1021 lb
Coarse aggregate = 205.97 × (27/3) × (3/3.01) = 1854 lb
Water = 33.77 × (27/3) × (3/3.01) = 302 lb

The new mixture proportions result in a w/cm of (302)/
(976) = 0.31. To maintain the desired ratio of 0.30, the mass
of cement should be increased to (302)/(0.30) = 1007 lb/yd3

of cement. The increase in volume due to the adjustment of
the mass of cement is (1007 – 976)/(3.15 × 62.4) = 0.158 ft3,
which should be adjusted for by removing an equal volume
of fine aggregate. The mass of fine aggregate to be removed
is 0.158 × 2.59 × 62.4 = 26 lb. The resulting adjusted mixture
proportions are:

2. For placement in the heavily reinforced columns, a
flowing concrete having a slump of at least 9 in. is desired.
The dosage rate recommended by the manufacturer of the
HRWRA ranged between 8 and 16 oz/cwt of cementitious
material. In a laboratory having an ambient temperature of 75
°F, adding HRWRA to the adjusted mixture at a dosage rate of
8 oz/cwt produced a slump of 6 in., 11 oz/cwt produced a
slump of 10 in., and 16 oz/cwt caused segregation of the fresh
concrete. When using all three HRWRA rates, a constant
dosage rate of retarding admixture of 2.5 oz/cwt was also

Basic mixture Mass, lb

Cement N/A 109.00

Fine aggregate, dry (114.00)/(1.064) = 107.14

Coarse aggregate, dry (207.00)/(1.005) = 205.97

Batch water (28.50 + 5.68* – 0.41†) = 33.77
*Fine aggregate moisture correction.
†Coarse aggregate moisture correction.

Basic mixture Volume, ft3

Cement (109.00)/(3.15 × 62.4) = 0.55

Fine aggregate (107.14)/(2.59 × 62.4) = 0.66

Coarse aggregate (205.97)/(2.76 × 62.4) = 1.20

Water (33.77)/(62.4) = 0.54

Air (0.02 × 3.0) = 0.06

Total volume 3.01

Basic mixture Mass, lb

Cement 976

Fine aggregate, dry 960

Coarse aggregate, dry 1845

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding admixture) 302

Basic mixture Mass, lb

Cement 1007

Fine aggregate, dry 934

Coarse aggregate, dry 1845

Water (including 2.5 oz/cwt retarding admixture) 302
added to the mixture with the mixing water. The HRWRA was
added approximately 15 minutes after initial mixing;

3. The concrete mixture with a 10 in. slump had adequate
workability for proper placement, so no adjustment was
necessary to the coarse aggregate content;

4. The air content of the HRWRA mixture was measured
at 1.8%, so no correction was necessary;

5. The addition of significant amounts of HRWRA
requires an adjustment in the mixing water to account for
water contributed by the HRWRA and accommodate for the
yield variation resulting from the admixture water. For
HRWRA dosage rate of 11 oz/cwt with 20% solids, the water
correction is:

Water contributed by HRWRA:
11 × (1007/100)(0.80)/16 = 5.54 lb of water

The impact of the solids part of the chemical admixture on
the weight and yield are often negligible and can be ignored
in mixture proportioning as long as the admixture water is
considered in weight and mixture yield. The amount of
mixing water should be reduced by 5.54 lb contributed by the
admixtures; and

6. The 28-day compressive strength of the basic mixture
was 11,750 psi, which satisfied the required strength of
10,600 psi.

6.3.2.10.2 Companion mixture No. 4
1. The actual amount of mixing water required to produce

a 1 to 2 in. slump was less than that calculated for this trial
mixture (3.0 ft3). The actual batch masses were:

Correcting these by dry masses gives:

The actual yield of the trial mixture was:

Mixture No. 4 Mass, lb

Cement 71.07

Fly ash, Class C 38.27

Fine aggregate 107.43

Coarse aggregate 207.00

Batch water 26.50

Mixture No. 4 Mass, lb

Cement 71.07

Fly ash, Class C 38.27

Fine aggregate, dry 100.97

Coarse aggregate, dry 205.97

Batch water 31.78

Material Volume calculation Volume, ft3

Cement (70.56)/(3.15 × 62.4) = 0.36

Fly ash, Class C (38.00)/(2.64 × 62.4) = 0.23

Fine aggregate (99.10)/(2.59 × 62.4) = 0.62

Coarse aggregate (205.97)/(2.76 × 62.4) = 1.20

Water (32.67)/(62.4) = 0.51

Air (0.02)/(3.0) = 0.06

Total volume 2.98

Page 28

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®

Advancing concrete knowledge

Page 29

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Guide for Selecting Proportions for High-Strength Concrete
Using Portland Cement and Other Cementitious Materials

American Concrete Institute
®

Advancing concrete knowledge

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